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prelims Test Series 2019
बेसिक इंग्लिश का दूसरा सत्र (कक्षा प्रारंभ : 22 अक्तूबर, शाम 3:30 से 5:30)
International Environmental Organisation
Jun 04, 2014

1. International Union for Conservation of Nature

2. World Wildlife Fund

3. United Nations Environment Programme

4. International Panel on Climate Change

5. International Renewable Energy Agency

6. World Nature Organisation (WNO)

7. Global Environment Facility

8. The Economy of Ecosystem and Biodiversity (TEEB)

9. World Meteorological organisation (WMO)

10. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) 

11. GreenPeace

1. IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature, the oldest global environmental organization. Since its inception in the 1940s, IUCN has led the world in environmental research and conservation efforts. Today, the organization has over 1000 affiliate groups, and maintains offices and field sites in 140 countries worldwide.

  • Founded in 1948 as the world’s first global environmental organisation.

  • Today, the largest professional global conservation network.

  • A leading authority on the environment and sustainable development.

  • More than 1,200 member organizations including 200+ government and 900+ non-government organizations.

  • The Union’s headquarters are located in Gland, near Geneva, in Switzerland.

  • A neutral forum for governments, NGOs, scientists, business and local communities to find practical solutions to conservation and development challenges

  • Thousands of field projects and activities around the world

  • Governance by a Council elected by member organizations every four years at the IUCN World Conservation Congress

  • Funded by governments, bilateral and multilateral agencies, foundations, member organisations and corporations

  • Official Observer Status at the United Nations General Assembly


IUCN RED LIST :


Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on plants and animals that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those plants and animals that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on plants and animals that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxon (plural of taxon) that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e., are Data Deficient); and on plants and animals that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened, were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e., are Near Threatened).


Species are classified by the IUCN Red List into nine groups, 

  • Extinct (EX) – No known individuals remaining.

  • Extinct in the Wild (EW) – Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range.

  • Critically Endangered (CR) – Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.

  • Endangered (EN) – High risk of extinction in the wild.

  • Vulnerable (VU) – High risk of endangerment in the wild.

  • Near Threatened (NT) – Likely to become endangered in the near future.

  • Least Concern (LC) – Lowest risk. Does not qualify for a more at risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.

  • Data Deficient (DD) – Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinction.

  • Not Evaluated (NE) – Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.



IUCN and India: 

1) Mangroves for the Future (MFF) is a partnership-based initiative promoting investment in coastal ecosystems for sustainable development. MFF provides a collaborative platform to help countries, sectors and agencies in the MFF region tackle the growing challenges to coastal sustainability.

2)
Ecosystems for Life: A Bangladesh-India Initiative is a civil society led multi-stakeholder dialogue process to promote better understanding of the management of natural resources in Bangladesh and India.

3)
The agreement between IUCN and The Dhamra Port Company Limited (DPCL), a Joint venture of Tata Steel and Larsen & Tourbo, is an encouraging step forward in promoting corporate environmental responsibility. This acquires even greater importance given the proximity of the port in relation to one of the world’s most important mass-nesting beaches for OLIVE RIDLEY TURTLES. Given the Tata Group’s commitment to environmental preservation, IUCN believes that engaging with DPCL, in an effort to integrate the highest of environmental standards into the port development and operations, is an exemplary model of contemporary conservation in action.

4) The Livelihood and Landscape strategy: The India LLS initiative builds on the ongoing Joint Forest Management (JFM) programme which was introduced by the Government of India in 1988 to regenerate and manage the country’s forests through partnerships in forest management involving both the state forest departments and local communities.


5) IUCN, with support from Nokia, aims to demonstrate traditional and innovative options to enhance livelihoods, water resources management, climate change resilience and ecosystem restoration in Balkila watershed, Uttarakhand, India.

2) WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature): It is an international organisation working to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by:

  • Conserving the world's biological diversity.

  • Ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable.

  • Promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption.

Overview of WWF :

  • World Wildlife Fund was conceived in April, 1961.

  • The world’s leading conservation organization, WWF works in 100 countries.

  • It is a conservation organization dedicated to build a healthy living planet for future generations.

  • It’s  Headquarter is in Gland (Switzerland).

3) UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme): The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of the United Nations that coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

UNEP, established in 1972, is the voice for the environment within the United Nations system. UNEP acts as a catalyst, advocate, educator and facilitator to promote the wise use and sustainable development of the global environment.

UNEP work encompasses:

  • Assessing global, regional and national environmental conditions and trends.

  • Developing international and national environmental instruments.

  • Strengthening institutions for the wise management of the environment.

4) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC): It is the leading international body for the assessment of climate change. It was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988 to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge in climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. In the same year, the UN General Assembly endorsed the action by WMO and UNEP in jointly establishing the IPCC.

  • The IPCC is a scientific body under the auspices of the United Nations (UN).

  • It reviews and assesses the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change. 

  • It itself does not conduct any research activity and thousands of scientists from all over the world contribute to the work of the IPCC on a voluntary basis. 

  • Currently, 195 countries are members of the IPCC.

  • Work of the organization is therefore policy-relevant and yet policy-neutral, never policy-prescriptive.

  • At the end of 2007, the IPCC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. 


5) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA): The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organisation that supports countries in their transition to a sustainable energy future, and serves as the principal platform for international cooperation, a centre of excellence, and a repository of policy, technology, resource and financial knowledge on renewable energy.  IRENA promotes the widespread adoption and sustainable use of all forms of renewable energy, including bio energy, geothermal, hydropower, ocean, solar and wind energy in the pursuit of sustainable development, energy access, energy security and low-carbon economic growth and prosperity.

  • The Founding Conference of the International Renewable Energy Agency was held in Bonn, Germany, on January 26, 2009. 

  • 75 countries signed the Agency's statute. The statute entered into force on July 8, 2010, thirty days after the twenty-fifth country deposits its instrument of ratification.

  • IRENA seeks to make an impact in the world of renewable energy by maintaining a clear and independent position, providing a range of reliable and well-understood services that complement those already offered by the renewable energy community and gather existing, but scattered, activities around a central hub.

  • IRENA does not duplicate what others are doing, but seeks out, establishes and develops new synergies, facilitates dialogue, and information and best practice sharing.

  • Cooperation at the global, regional and national levels, knowledge sharing, enabling policies and enhanced capacity, as well as the encouragement of investment flows and strengthened technology and innovation, are essential elements in the Agency’s efforts.


6) World Nature Organisation: The World Nature Organization is the intergovernmental organization dedicated to environmental protection on a global scale.

  • WNO initiative was born in 2010 by states which are threatened by rising sea levels.

  • The WNO Treaty officially entered into force on 1st May 2014.

  • WNO acts as a centre of competence for environmental protection, green technologies and sustainability, and as a mediator and initiator, making available experience of practical applications and strategies, offering support on all issues related to responsible conduct as regards the natural environment and its resources and assisting States to benefit from efficient development and from scientific and technology transfer.

  • The World Nature Organization  promotes sustainable conduct as regards the natural environment, together with new, environments-friendly technologies, green economies and renewable energies.


7) Global Environment Fund:  The Global Environment Facility is a partnership for international cooperation where 183 countries work together with international institutions, civil society organizations and the private sector, to address global environmental issues.  

  • The Global Environment Facility was established in October 1991 as a $1 billion pilot program in the World Bank to assist in the protection of the global environment and to promote environmental sustainable development.

  • The GEF work focuses on seven main areas, including biodiversity, climate change (mitigation and adaptation), chemicals, international waters, land degradation, sustainable forest management/REDD+,Ozone layer depletion.

  • The GEF also serves as financial mechanism for the following four conventions: 
    (i) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
    (ii) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
    (iii) Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), and
    (iv) UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

  • The GEF also provides a separate window for the direct participation of NGOs, local communities, and other grassroots organizations through the Small Grants Programme that is managed by UNDP.

  • World Bank serves as Trustee and administrator of the GEF Trust Fund.

  • UNEP is an Implementing Agency of the GEF with the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

India & GEF

The Sustainable Land and Ecosystem Management (SLEM) Programme: It is a joint initiative of the Government of India and the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) under the latter’s Country partnership Programme (CPP).


  • The objective of the SLEM Programmatic Approach is to promote sustainable land management and use of biodiversity as well as maintain the capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services while taking into account climate change.

  • To contribute to the implementation of the 11th Plan SLEM Project developed.11th Plan has placed a high priority on raising agricultural productivity to achieve annual growth of more than 4.1 %. The plan acknowledges that this target cannot be achieved in the face of ongoing shrinking and degradation of the country’s natural resources; it therefore commits to conservation and to harnessing and developing the natural resource base.

  • The overall objective of the SLEM partnership is to contribute to poverty alleviation in India by promoting enhanced efficiency of natural resource use, improved land and ecosystem productivity, and reduced vulnerability to extreme weather events, including the effects of climate change.

  • The immediate objectives of SLEM–CPP are the following:
    (i) Prevention and/or control of land degradation by restoration of degraded (agricultural and forested) lands and biomass cover and make sustainable use of natural resources in selected project areas;
    (ii) Enhancement of local capacity and institution building to strengthen land and ecosystem management;
    (iii) Facilitation of knowledge dissemination and application of national and international good practices in SLEM within and across states; and(iv) Replication and scaling up of successful land and ecosystem management practices and technologies to maximise synergies across the UN Conventions on Biological Diversity (CBD), Climate Change (FCCC), and Combating Desertification (CCD) conventions.

  • The Desertification Cell, MoEF is the national executing agency for the SLEM programmatic approach.

  • SLEM is a multiagency initiative supported by the World Bank, UNDP, and FAO, and is designed to engage national and state-level agencies

  • The States where SLEM-CPP is currently operational include, Uttarakhand, Nagaland, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Odisha, Haryana and the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

8) The Economy of Ecosystem and Biodiversity (TEEB)

  • It is a global initiative focused on drawing attention to the economic benefits of biodiversity including the growing cost of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation. TEEB presents an approach that can help decision-makers recognize, demonstrate and capture the values of ecosystem services & biodiversity.

  • TEEB study was launched by Germany and the European Commission in response to a proposal by the G8+5 Environment Ministers in Potsdam, Germany in 2007, to develop a global study on the economics of biodiversity loss.

  • The second phase of the TEEB study is hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) with support from a number of organizations, including the European Commission, German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

  • TEEB Study was led by Pavan Sukhdev.

  • One motive for the study was to establish an objective global standard basis for natural capital accounting. Estimates establish the cost of biodiversity and ecosystem damage expected to cost 18% of global economic output by 2050.

9) World Meteorological organisation (WMO)

  • It is a specialized agency of the United Nations.

  • It is the UN system's authoritative voice on the state and behaviour of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources.

  • It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873. Established in 1950, WMO became the specialized agency of the United Nations in 1951 for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences.

  • WMO promotes cooperation in the establishment of networks for making meteorological, climatological, hydrological and geophysical observations, as well as the exchange, processing and standardization of related data, and assists technology transfer, training and research.

  • It also fosters collaboration between the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services of its Members and furthers the application of meteorology to public weather services, agriculture, aviation, shipping, the environment, water issues and the mitigation of the impacts of natural disasters.

  • The vision of WMO is to provide world leadership in expertise and international cooperation in weather, climate, hydrology and water resources and related environmental issues and thereby contribute to the safety and well-being of people throughout the world and to the economic benefit of all nations

  • Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) is a program initiated by the World Meteorological Organization. AMDAR is used to collect meteorological data worldwide by using commercial aircraft.

  • The Global Atmospheric Research Program was a fifteen-year international research programme led by the World Meteorological Organization and the International Council of Scientific Unions.  It began in 1967 and organised several important field experiments including GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment in 1974 and the Alpine Experiment (ALPEX) in 1982. Its field experiments helped make significant progress in meteorology in particular allowing major improvements in Numerical Weather Prediction.

10. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) : People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is the largest animal rights organization in the world and a Non profit organisation.

  • Founded in March 1980 by Newkirk and fellow animal rights activist Alex Pacheco,

  • PETA focuses its attention on the four areas in which the largest numbers of animals suffer the most intensely for the longest periods of time: on factory farms, in the clothing trade, in laboratories, and in the entertainment industry. It work on a variety of other issues, including the cruel killing of beavers, birds, and other “pests” as well as cruelty to domesticated animals.

  • It functions/works through public education, cruelty investigations, research, animal rescue, legislation, special events, celebrity involvement, and protest campaigns.

11. GreenPeace: It is a nongovernmental organisation working for conservation and Protection of environment. Its goal is to ensure the ability of the earth to nurture life in all its diversity. Greenpeace campaigns are geared towards a sustainable planet.

  • It was set up in Vancouver, Canada in 1971.

  • Greenpeace states its goal to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity".

  • It focuses its campaigning on worldwide issues such as global warming deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling, genetic engineering, and anti-nuclear issues. 

  • Greenpeace uses direct action, lobbying and research to achieve its goals. 

  • Greenpeace has a general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council


     


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