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बेसिक इंग्लिश का दूसरा सत्र (कक्षा प्रारंभ : 22 अक्तूबर, शाम 3:30 से 5:30)
Indus valley civilization
Oct 18, 2013

Indus Valley civilization was established around 3300 b.c.e. and flourished between 2600 and 1900 b.c.e. Around 1900 b.c.e., it entered a period of decline and ultimately disappeared around 1400 b.c.e. 

Geographical extent:

It covered parts of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Western UP. It extended from Mandu in Jammu in the North to the Daimabad in the South and from Alamgirpur in west UP to Sutkagengor in Baluchistan in west. It was estimated to include over five hundred thousand square miles. 

Important Sites in India: Lothal, Rangpur and Surkotda in Gujarat; Kalibangan in Rajasthan, Banawali in Hissar, etc. 

Important Sites in Pakistan: Harappa (on Ravi River); Mohenjodaro (on Indus River); Chanhudaro (on Sindh River). Harappa was discovered by Dayanand Sahni, Mohenjodaro by R. D Banerjee.

Salient features: 

  • The cities were well planned and were built with baked bricks all of equal size.

  • Roads were laid out in grid patterns and each city was built on a hill with a structure that was a fortress or temple. 

  • Enormous granaries stored crops that were grown in outlying villages. 

  • House made of bricks had plumbing with baths and chutes that led to sewers. 

  • Drains were made of mortar, lime and gypsum, covered with slabs.

  • Main occupation was farming. Seeds were sowed in flood plains in November and reaped them before April i.e. before the advent of next flood due to Monsoon.

  • They were the first to grow cotton and weave it into cloth. 

  • Crops grown were: Wheat, Barley, Rai, Peas, Dates, Mustard, etc.

  • Indus Valley people domesticated animals such as cattle, cat, dogs, elephants, etc.

  • Production of several metals such as copper, bronze, lead and tin was undertaken.

  • The Harappan society was divided according to occupations.

  • The Harappans worshipped gods and goddesses in male and female forms with evolved rituals and ceremonies.

  • They worshipped Mother Goddess but no temples were found.

  • Trade was a major activity at the Indus Valley. It was carried through Barter System.

  • Weights were made of limestone and were generally cubical in 16, 64 denominations.

  • Harappan civilization had extensive trade relations with neighboring regions in India and with distant lands in the Persian Gulf and in Sumer (Iraq). 

  • Organisation like Municipal Corporation was present to look after the civic amenities of the people.


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