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INDIAN PAINTING
Oct 25, 2014

BHIMBETKA  

  • Cave is near Bhopal

  • One of the earliest example of Indian Painting. The paintings date from 1500-2000 BC.

  • Largest and oldest collection of rock paintings belonging to Neolithic age and depicting everyday lives of the people – hunting, daring and decoration of bodies, of Magical significance. 

  • Declared as World Heritage site

  • Executed mainly in red and transparent with the occasional use of green and yellow. 


Fig: Rock paintings at Zoo-rock, Bhimbetka

Ajanta 

  • There are 30 caves chiseled out of the rock in a semicircular fashion, executed between  2nd century B.C. and 7th century A.D. 

  • 9, 10 painting are of Surga period, other are of Gupta inspiration, subject relate to decoration figure portraiture and topical narration. Scene of life of Buddha.

  • Compositions of these paintings are large but the majority of the figures are smaller than life size. Principal characters are in heroic proportions

  • No frame divides a scene from the next but blends into the other, there is no perspective but an illusion of depth is given by placing the background figures Somewhat above those in foreground

  • Decorative design include pattern & scrolls and figures of animals, flowers & trees.

  • Mythical king freely used to fill the space.

  • Painting of ‘Dying Princess”

 

 


Sittanavasal 

  • Here paintings are connected with JAINA theme 

  • The ceilings have depiction of a lotus tank with natural looking images of men, animals, flowers, birds and fishes representing the Samavasarana faith of Jainism.

  • The pillars are also carved with dancing girl and the king and the queen. 

  • Enjoy the same norm and technique as that of Ajanta. 

  • Most paintings are made in Pandyan period - 7th century AD.

Bagh Cave Painting

  • Caves are group of nine rock-cut monuments, situated on the slopes of the Vindhyas in Madhya Pradesh (Dhar district). 

  • They are Buddhist in inspiration, all the caves are viharas

  • Same stylistic form as Ajanta, but Bagh figures are more tightly modelled, and are stronger in outline. 

  • They are more earthly and human than those at Ajanta. Unfortunately, their condition is now such that they can only be appreciated at the site.

BADAMI CAVE

  • Earliest Brahmanical paintings so far known, belonging to 6th century A.D. 

  • The technique follows that of Ajanta and Bagh, the modelling is much more sensitive in texture and expression and the outline soft and elastic.

PALA School 

  • The earliest examples of miniature painting in India exist in the form of illustrations to the religious texts on Buddhism executed under the Palas of the eastern India and the Jain texts executed in western India during the 11th-12th centuries A.D. 

  • This School developed illustration on palm leaf and paper manuscripts and on their wooden covers

  • This school is inspired by Vajrayana Buddhism characterized by sinus lines, subdued tones and simple composition. 

  • It is a naturalistic style which resembles the ideal forms of contemporary bronze and stone sculpture, and reflects some feeling of the classical art of Ajanta

  • They are Mughal painting in reduced dimension continuing tradition of Bagh & Ajanta. 

Western Indian School of Painting

  • Prevailed in the region comprising Gujarat, Rajasthan and Malwa. The motivating force for the artistic activity in Western India was Jainism just as it was Buddhism in case of the Ajanta and the Pala arts. 

  • Counterpart of Pala in western India (11th to 15th) earlier phase of illustrated manuscripts on palm leaf and later phase on paper. 

  • This is an art of primitive vitality vigorous line and forceful colours.

  • Notable figure are angular faces in 3/4th profile, pointed noses, eyes protruding beyond the facial live, an abundance of accessory details and careful ornamentation subject matter Jaina sacred text (early phase) later 

  • Vaishnav subject such as Gita Govinda. 

Vijaynagar

  • Rooted in Deccan ex. Ellora & in Chola painting

  • Best preserved are those of Virabhadra temple.

  • Ceiling Panels are as long as 11 meter and painted borders with abstract motifs set the composition off from their architectural setting.

  • Lepakshi painting are characterized by the earth tones and the nearly complete absence of blue, in fact primary colours in general forms of the figures and the details of their costumes are outlined in black and the colours applied in a flat manner. 

  • Realism doesn’t seem to be main concern. 

Sultanate  Painting 

  • Fusion of Persian & traditional Indian style.

Nimat Nama

  • fusion of Jaina & Persian style 

  • In the Nimat Nama style the Persian influence is visible in the scroll like clouds, flowering trees, grassy tufts and flowering plants in the background, female figures and costumes.

  • Indian elements are noticeable in some female types and their costumes and ornaments and colours. 

Mughal

  • The origin of the Mughal School of Painting is considered to be a landmark in the history of painting in India. With the establishment of the Mughal empire, the Mughal School of painting originated in the reign of Akbar in 1560 A.D. 

  • In the beginning of his rule an ateliar of painting was established under the supervision of two Persian masters, Mir Sayyed Ali and Abdul Samad Khan, who were originally employed by his father Humayun. A large number of Indian artists from all over India were recruited to work under the Persian masters.

  • Mughal style evolved as a result of a happy synthesis of the indigenous Indian style of painting and the Safavid school of Persian painting. 

  • The Mughal style is marked by supple naturalism based on close observation of nature and fine and delicate drawing. 

  • It is of a high aesthetic merit. It is primarily aristocratic and secular.

  • Realism key stone of it, incident drawn from magnificent court life of time,

  • Under Jahangir, painting acquired greater charm, refinement and dignity. He had great fascination for nature and took delight in the portraiture of birds, animals and flowers. Some important manuscripts illustrated during his period are, an animal fable book called Ayar-i-Danish.

  • Jahangir commissioned or fist to desired portraits of rare animals & god. 

  • Under Shah Jahan the Mughal painting maintained its fine quality. But the style, however, became over-ripe during the later period of his rule. Portraiture was given considerable attention by his painters. The well-known artists of his period are Bichiter, Chaitaraman, Anup Chattar, Mohammed Nadir of Samarquand, Inayat and Makr. 

  • Aurangzeb was a puritan and therefore did not encourage art. Painting declined during his period and lost much of its earlier quality. A large number of court painters migrated to the provincial courts.

  • During the period of Bahadur Shah, there was a revival of the Mughal painting after the neglect shown by Aurangzeb. The style shows an improvement in quality.

Rajsthani Painting 

  • Origin dates back to sultanate period illustration influenced by the contemporary literacy and musical forms and drawn upon their motifs.

  • Unlike Mughal painting which is primarily secular, the art of painting in Central India, Rajasthani and the Pahari region etc. is deeply rooted in the Indian traditions, taking inspiration from Indian epics, religious texts like the Puranas, love poems in Sanskrit and other Indian languages, Indian folk-lore and works on musical themes.

  • All are decorate in their composition & colour schme done with utmost care and in minute details with story lines & bold colours set in harmonies. 

  • The cults of Vaishnavism, Saivism and Sakti exercised tremendous influence on the pictorial art of these places. Among these the cult of Krishna was the most popular one which inspired the patrons and artists. 

  • The themes from theRamayana., the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata, the Siva Purana, the Naishadacarita, the Usha Aniruddha, the GitaGovinda of Jayadeva, the Rasamanjari of Bhanudatta, the Amaru Sataka, the Rasikapriya of Kesavadasa, the Bihari Satasayee and the Ragamala etc., provided a very rich field to the painter who with his artistic skill and devotion made a significant contribution to the development of Indian painting.

  • All the sub style possess certain common factors that suggest a generic Rajasthani style which gave birth to region styles of Bundi, Mewar, Amber, Malawa etc. 

a) Mewar Painting 

  • “Rangmala Painting’ in Portray incident mainly from the life of Krishna and his frolic with the gopi 

  • the hero & heroine themse of Indian Poetry and pictorial representation of the Indian musical (Rangmala) under Bhagvat and Ramayana illustration conceived & executed on wider scale. 

  • Portrayal of birds and animal show their Gujrati origin though Mughal influence can be felt. 

  • Landscape lack the naturalism of the Mughal school but has imaginative character, tree types with dense foliage, rivers full of lotus blossoms and drops of rain falling from deep blue clouds, strengths of gold indicating lighting are all striking. 

b) Malwa Painting

  • 17th-century school of Rājasthanī miniature painting centred largely in Mālwa and Bundelkhand (in modern Madhya Pradesh state)

  • Mandu was the main center in the early era of pre-Mughal times where "Kalpsutra" was painted in 1439 A.D. This was also the painting period of "Niyamatnama". 

  • The painting tradition of Malwa influenced the painting tradition of Mewar.

  • Mālwa paintings show a fondness for rigorously flat compositions, black and chocolate-brown backgrounds, figures shown against a solid colour patch, and architecture painted in lively colour. The school’s most appealing features are a primitive charm and a simple childlike vision.

c) Marwar 

  • Developed pictorial art on its own lines and Mughal stylistic trends began to get into the background. 

  • One of the earliest examples of painting in Marwar is a series of the Ragamala in the collection of Kumar Sangram Singh, painted by an artist named Virji in 1623 A.D. at Pali in Marwar.

  • Jodhpur & Nagaur painting show very bold types of expression with broad, fish eyes in human faces and highly stylized tree types school is by 18th painting spend to other centers which is essentially Hindu is feeling.

d) Kishangarh (Banithani Painting)

  • Offshoot of Jodhpur school, rose around the personality of Raja Samant Singh (1748-64) 

  • popular subject loves of ‘Radha & Krishna’ 

  • Nihalchand developed ‘Mannerist’ style which exaggerated the slender curves and almond eyes of his figures the facial type, though idealized, is extremely lyrical in the beauty contest. 

  • The painting is marked by delicate drawing, fine modelling of the human figures and cows and the broad vista of landscape showing a stream, rows of overlapping trees, and architecture. 

  • The artist has displayed a masterly skill in the grouping of many figures in the miniature. The painting has a golden inner border..

e) Jaipur 

  • It is generally believed that a school of painting originated at Amber, the old capital of the Amber State, in early 17th century. Later on in the 18th century, the centre of artistic activity shifted to Jaipur, the new capital.

  • Mughal sense to make any genuine impression.

  • Painting become an extra vulgarity decorative art.

f) Bundi

  • The Bundi style of painting is very close to the Mewar style, but the former excels the latter in quality. 

  • Bundi School Concentrated on court scheme, many scenes of nobles, lovers & ladies in palaces were produced. 

  • The peculiar characteristics of the Bundi painting are the rich and glowing colors, the rising sun in golden colour, crimson-red horizon, overlapping and semi-naturalistic trees. 

  • The Mughal influence is visible in the refined drawing of the faces and an element of naturalism in the treatment of the trees. The text is written in black against yellow background on the top.

g) Kotah

  • Renowned for superb hunting scene painted in 18th century.  

  • In Kotah paintings, most of the space is occupied by the hilly jungle which has been rendered with a unique charm.

PAHARI PAINTING

  • Developed  in small Hindu kingdom of Punjab hills was not sudden development, nor unrelated to life of people but deeply rooted in the feeling and experiences of the human heart and saturated with the Hillman’s poetry, music and religious belief

  • Love is inspiration and the main pre-occupation of the PAHARI School. 

  • The Pahari region comprises the present State of Himachal Pradesh, some adjoining areas of the Punjab, the area of Jammu in the Jammu and Kashmir State and Garhwal in Uttar Pradesh. 

a) Basohli 

  • Found in reign of Kripal Singh (1678&1844) appears totally evolved with a strong individual flavor which could have been the assertion of the folic art tradition in conjunction with the Mughal technique. 

  • The origins of the school are obscure; one of the earliest examples so far discovered, a series of illustrations to the Rasamañjarī (c. 1690), exhibits a style already completely formed. 

  • The colours are always brilliant, with ochre yellow, brown, and green grounds predominating. A distinctive technique is the depiction of jewelry by thick, raised drops of white paint, with particles of green beetles’ wings used to represent emeralds.

  • The Basohli style with its primitive vigor and fierce vitalities, bold lines and brilliant hot colours, continued to be norm till 1740. 

  • The Basohli style spread to the various neighboring states and continued till the middle of the 18th century.

  • Political upheaval after that & anxious of merchant, traders & artist from other place give new impetus for it and invasion of Nadir Shah consequent to this ‘Subpage Intensity’ of Basohli style abandoned and new center developed 

b) Guler 

  • The nature Guler Kangra style of Himachal developed somewhere around the year 1800. It was a more naturalized version of painting, with visible difference in the treatment of eyes and modeling of the face. Landscapes were also commonly used as themes. Along with that, this style also accentuated the elegance and grace of the Indian women

  • It is work of Single family

  • In it lyrical & cool depiction of women are done who bear their lovers’ work

  • Miniature devoted to Krishna were associated with it.

  • There synthesis of Basohli & Mughal style is realized. 

  • Drawings is light & fluid and composition naturalistic. Poses and gestures play important roles in the portrayal of individuals and face becomes the index of character. 

c) Kangra

  • It is fine workmanship of Mughal miniatures

  • It is the third phase of the Pahari painting and developed  in the last quarter of the 18th century. 

  • This style developed out of Guler style

  • Their tones were subdued and the lines are exquisitely fire & melodious especially in the female figures illustrating the delicate graces of Indian womanhood

  • In these paintings, the faces of women in profile have the nose almost in line with the forehead, the eyes are long and narrow and the chin is sharp. There is, however, no modeling of figures and hair is treated as a flat mass.

d) Kullu Mandi Style

  • A folk style of painting developed in the Kulu-Mandi area

  • It is mainly inspired by the local tradition. 

  • The style is marked by bold drawing and the use of dark and dull colours. Though influence of the Kangra style is observed in certain cases yet the style maintains its distinct folkish character

Deccan school of Painting

  • It is contemporary to Mughal painting, though actually deriving their forms from Vijayanagar & probably Bahamani Court painting. 

  • Early centres of painting in the Deccan, during the 16th and 17th centuries were Ahmednagar, Bijapur and Golconda. In the Deccan, painting continued to develop independently of the Mughal style in the beginning. However, later in the 17th and 18th centuries it was increasingly influenced by the Mughal style.

a) Golconda style

  • It shows royal taste in fruits, scented flowers and pets replaced by Hyderabadi style. 

  • Influence of the Persian painting is also observed in the treatment of the horizon gold sky and landscape.

  • The colours are rich and brilliant and are different from those of the northern painting. 

  • Tradition of the early Deccani painting continued long after the extinction of the Deccan Sultanates of Ahmednagar, Bijapur and Golconda.

b) Tanjore style

  • A style of painting characterised by bold drawing, techniques of shading and the use of pure and brilliant colours flourished at Tanjore in South India during the late 18th and 19th centuries.

  • Vishnu, Shiva & Krishna favorite of artist 

  • Made for ritual & worship and not for display 

  • Paintings were made on Jack wood posted with unbleached cloth brilliant colour schemes, jewellery with stones and copper glasses & remarkable gold leaf work to which a mixture of list, chalk, gum honey are applied in layers on a sketch of the icon. 

  • Background always painted Red/Green. 

  • Baby Krishna is white but as an adult blue.

  • Outlines of figures are in a dark reddish brown. 

  • Belong to Maratha Period them mythological. 

c) Hyderabad  Style

  • Started with the foundation of the Asafjhi dynasty by Mir Qamruddin Khan (Chin Qulick Khan) Nizam-ul-Mulk in 1724 A.D.

  • Influence of the Mughal style of painting on the already existing early styles of Deccani paintings, introduced by several Mughal painters who migrated to the Deccan during the period of Aurangzeb and sought patronage there, was responsible for the development of various styles of painting in the Deccan at Hyderabad and other centres.

  • Distinctive features of the Deccani paintings of the 18th and 19th centuries are observed in the treatment of the ethnic types, costumes, jewellery, flora, fauna, landscape and colours.

d) Bijapur

  • Painting was patronised by Ali Adil Shah I (1558-80 A.D.) and his successor Ibrahim II (1580-1627 A.D.)

  • There is influence of the Lepakshi mural painting on the female types.

  • The rich colour scheme, the palm trees, animals and men and women all belong, to the Deccani tradition. 

  • The profuse use of gold colour, some flowering plants and arabesques on the top of the throne are derived from the Persian tradition.

Madhubani 

  • In Mithila region

  • Characterized by line drawings filled in by bright colors and contrasts/patterns

  • Traditionally done by women by the region uses bright earthy colors. 

  • Work is done on freshly plastered or mud wall, figures from nature and mythology adopted. 

  • These Painting is done with fingers, twigs, brushes, nib-pens, and matchsticks, using natural dyes and pigments,

  • Characterized by eye-catching geometrical patterns. 

  • Traditionally done on freshly plastered mud walls and floors of huts, but now they are also done on cloth, hand-made paper and canvas. 

  • Madhubani paintings are made from the paste of powdered rice. 

  • There are paintings for each occasion and festival such as birth, holi, kali puja, etc

  • Madhubani paintings mostly depict nature and Hindu religious motifs, and the themes generally revolve around Hindu deities

Warli Folk Painting 

  • Developed in Maharashtra

  • Warlis are an indigenous tribe living in hilly regions of Maharashtra-Gujarat border

  • Root trace back to 10th century.

  • It is vivid expression of daily & social events of Warli tribe, used by then to embellish the walls of village houses. Women are mainly engaged don’t depict mythological character/images of deities but depict social life. 

  • It uses very shapes: a circle, a triangle and a square. The circle represents the sun and the moon, the triangle derived from mountains and pointed trees, the square indicates a sacred enclosure or a piece of land. 

  • Painted on austre mud base using one color. In this sax  to see straight line. 

  • Human and animal bodies are represented by two triangles joined at the tip; the upper triangle depicts the trunk and the lower triangle the pelvis. Their precarious equilibrium symbolizes the balance of the universe

Patachitra 

  • Traditional painting of Orissa, and as its name suggests is drawing on canvas (patta)

  • Paintings are based on Hindu Mythology and specially inspired by Jagannath and Vaishnava cult. 

  • Paintings are done on small strips of cotton cloth. The canvas is prepared by coating the cloth with a mixture of chalk and gum made from tamarind seeds. Women traditionally make this gum and application. 

  • The master hand, mostly the male member, draws the initial line and gives the final finishing.

  • The painting is held over a fire-place so that the back of the painting is exposed to heat. On the surface of the painting fine lacquer is applied.

  • Natural colours are used.

  • Tala Pattachitra is one variant of this form,  drawn on palm leaf.

 


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