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बेसिक इंग्लिश का दूसरा सत्र (कक्षा प्रारंभ : 22 अक्तूबर, शाम 3:30 से 5:30)
Bhitarakanika
Aug 23, 2014

Bhitarakanika  is the several largest contiguous mangrove  forest in India. It is largest in the east coast of India .It lies between the latitude 200 30’ and 200 50’ N and the longitude 860 45’ and 870 10’E in the northeast of the Mahanadi delta in Kendrapada district. 

In 1975 Bhitarakanika was declared as a sanctuary under the Wild Life protection act, 1972 and comprises Bhitarakanika, Kalibhanjadian and Gahirmatha mangrove area. Due to its biodiversity and uniqueness the sanctuary area is declared as a Ramsar site. The sanctuary is bounded by the Dhamara River in the north, the Hansua in the west and the Bay of Bengal in the east and south. Gahirmatha mangrove area comprises Sunirupi R.F, Habilikunti P.F and Gahirmatha P.F. The area is underlain by alluvial deposits which are brought down by the rivers. The average annual rain fall is 1300 mm and the main rainy months are from July to September. The area is also prone to severe cyclonic storms during April to June and October to November. The temperature varies between 10 C minimum in winter to 45 C maximum in summer.

The diversity in fauna is very high. The animals that are associated with mangroves have a wide range of  invertebrate and vertebrate fauna. There are about 172 species of birds, 94 species of reptiles, 26 species of c maximum in summer. Olive Ridley Turtles Gahirmatha coast in Kendrapara district, the world’s largest nesting beach for olive Ridley turtles.

FLORA: Compared to Sundarbans - India's largest tract of mangrove forest, Bhitarkanika represents a wider species diversity of mangrove flora, which comprise 55 species out of recorded 58 species in India.


FAUNA: Bhitarkanika harbours one of the largest populations  (about 700) of endangered saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) in India. Eastern boundary of Bhitarkanika (Garhimata) supports nearly half million olive ridleys that nest  every year is the single largest nesting ground in the world. The water monitor (Varanus salvator) is common here otherwise rare in most part of India.


Extremely high congregations of migratory waterfowl are observed during December and January of which eleven  species from Ciconifomes are known to nest in the multispecies nesting colony. Five species of marine dolphins have been recorded from the area namely Sousa chinesis, Orcaella  brevirostris, Delphinus delphis and Pantropical spotted dolphin.


The delataic slopes of Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary are extremely low lying and subject to regular tide inundation. The average elevation above mean tide level is between 1.5 and 2m and extends up to 3.4m .The mangrove soils are fine grain silt or clay formed by the sedimentation of the Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers. Surface soils close to the rivers vary from 2 to 4m in depth and decreases gradually from shore to the mainland. The alluvial, silty soil is not very productive unless humus formed from the exuviae of organism such as molluscs and crustaceans are added to it.


The site epitomizes the merging of four different ecosystems namely terrestrial, freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystems and shows all variations in genetic, specific and ecological diversity of both plant and animal communities. The peripheral areas in the buffer zone are dotted with numerous ornithologically important wetlands. The estuarine region of BCA can be classified into the outer funnel shaped estuarine zone and the inner narrow estuary. Tidal inundation causes heavy silt deposition and detrital content of the mangrove vegetation.


Helpline Number : 87501 87501
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