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Socio-Economic Census 2011
Jul 07, 2015

New data for rural households revealed by the Socio Economic and Caste Census (SECC) represent a grim reminder of the state of rural India. The SECC findings bring out statistics reflecting the state of poverty and deprivation in rural India as well as crucial social trends such as ownership of assets, gender dynamics, marital status, educational and employment.

Key Findings

♦ There are 24.39 crore households in the country, of which 17.91 crore live in villages.

♦ 10.69 Crore households are considered as deprived.

♦ The average size of a rural Indian household is nearly five members (4.93). 

♦ The highest being in Uttar Pradesh at 6.26 and the lowest in Andhra Pradesh at 3.86. 

♦ Over two out of every three rural households own a mobile phone. 

♦ Nearly 28 per cent rural households are without any phone. 

♦ In Chhattisgarh, this is particularly high at 71 per cent, mainly due to lack of connectivity and mobile towers.

♦ 36 per cent of rural Indians are illiterate. 

♦ 23.52 per cent rural families have no literate adult above 25 years

♦ The proportion of those passing through the primary, secondary, senior secondary and higher secondary stages drops at each successive level, from nearly 18 per cent to 5 per cent, while only 3.45 per cent are graduates or above. 

♦ The highest proportion for graduates is in the National Capital Territory and Delhi, at 9.6 per cent; among the states, Kerala tops at 8 per cent. 

♦ Only 10 per cent households have someone with a salaried job, the majority are in government jobs. 

♦ Only 8 per cent households earn Rs 10,000 or more every month.

♦ As for sources of income, 9.16 crore households (51.14%) depend on manual casual labour followed by cultivation (30.10%).

♦ 2.5 Crore (14.01%) rural families are dependent on income from other sources which include government service, private sector and PSUs.

♦ 5.37 Crore (29.97%) households in rural areas are landless deriving a major part of their income from manual labour.

♦ 4.08 Lakh households fall back on ragpicking while 6.68 lakh depend on begging and charity alms.

♦ Only 4.6 per cent of all rural households in the country pay income tax.

♦ 21.53 per cent (3.86 Crore) families living in villages belong to SC/ST categories.

♦ The percentage of Scheduled Caste households paying income tax was 3.49 per cent while Scheduled Tribe tax-paying rural households were mere 3.34 per cent

♦ Majority of households is male-headed, but nearly 13 per cent do have a female head. 

♦ In Rajasthan, around 91 per cent households in rural areas are headed by men, while in Kerala 26 per cent households are women-headed, the highest among the states.

♦ 2.37 Crore (13.25%) families in villages live in houses of one room with kaccha walls and roof.

♦ Divorces are a relatively common phenomenon in urban India, they remain almost rare in the rural landscape. 

♦ Only 0.12 per cent of the rural population has been divorced, the highest in Mizoram at 1.08 percent. 

♦ 41.64 per cent rural people as never married (the highest being in Nagaland at 56 per cent). 

♦ 0.09 per cent of rural households are houseless, compared to 0.15 per cent in the urban areas.

The census, carried out in 640 districts under the aegis of the Rural Development Ministry. This is the first Census released after 1932 and contains various details with regard to specific regions, communities, caste and economic groups and measures the progress of the households in India. 

SECC data would have meaningful use in housing for all, education and skills thrust, MGNREGA, the National Food Security Act, interventions for differently-abled, interventions for women-led households, and targeting of households/individual entitlements on evidence of deprivation.


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