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Q. The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: In the backdrop of recent visit to Hiroshima by USA President Obama, discuss the incident of atomic bombing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
May 30, 2016 Related to : GS Paper-1

Ans :

In news-

  • Nearly 71 years after the Atomic Bombings on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945), the sitting President paid first ever a solemn visit to these cities to offer respects to the victims of the world’s first deployed atomic bomb and the sacrifices of the U.S. troops that helped justify the act.

  • In his speech Obama said that memory of Hiroshima must never fade. Technological progress without equivalent progress in human institutions can doom us. The scientific revolution that led to the splitting of the atom requires a moral revolution as well.

  • But Obama did not apologised for America's decision on dropping the bombs (unlike Canadian PM Justin Trudeau, who apologised for Komagata Maru incident) rather spoke about a world without nuclear weapons.

Incident of Atomic Bombing-

On August 6, 1945, during World War II (1939-45), an American B-29 bomber dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. And on August 9, another American B-29 bomber, dropped second atomic bomb on Japan's Nagasaki. With this USA has becomes the first and only nation to use atomic weaponry, though this act marked the end of World War II, but many historians argue that it also ignited the Cold War.

Background-

  • In the final year of the Second World War, the Allies prepared for what was anticipated to be a very costly invasion of the Japanese mainland. This was preceded by a U.S. firebombing campaign that obliterated many Japanese cities.

  • The war in Europe had concluded when Nazi Germany signed its instrument of surrender on May 8, 1945. 

  • The Japanese, facing the same fate, refused to accept the Allies' demands for unconditional surrender and the Pacific War continued. 

  • Together with the UK and China, the USA called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on July, the alternative being prompt and utter destruction. 

  • Japanese regime ignored this ultimatum, which was followed by atomic bombing on Japanese cities by USA.

Impact-

  • The two atomic bombings, which killed about 2.2 lakh people and large number of people, were seriously injured. 

  • During the following months, large numbers died from the effect of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, compounded by illness and malnutrition.

  • Most parts of both cities came witnessed heavy devastation, leading heavy destruction in normal functioning of life. 

  • On August 14, Japan surrendered, which resulted into end of Second World War.

Conclusion-

Seventy-one years ago, on a bright cloudless morning, death fell from the sky and ruined Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Usage of nuclear weapons can endanger the very existence of human being.  It’s time to pursue world without nuclear weapons. Hiroshima and Nagasaki should be last examples of nuclear bombing in history of mankind.


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