Study Material | Test Series
Drishti IAS
call1800-121-6260 / 011-47532596
Drishti The Vision Foundation
(A unit of VDK Eduventures Pvt. Ltd.)
Q. Indus Valley Civilisation: Discuss the recent developments on ongoing excavation in Rakhigarhi, the site of Indus Valley Civilisation.
Jun 01, 2016 Related to : GS Paper-1

Ans :

Introduction-

The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization extending from today’s north-east Afghanistan to Pakistan and north-west India. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three earliest civilizations of the world and among three, IVC was the most widespread. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia. The IVC is also known as the Harappan Civilisation, after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s.

In news-


The team of scientists from the IIT Kharagpur and Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) started excavation process to prove that the civilization proliferated to other Indian sites like Bhirrana and Rakhigarrhi in Haryana. But ongoing excavation ended up unearthing something much bigger. According to them, they have uncovered evidence that the IVC is at least 8,000 years old, taking root well before the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations.

Key findings of the study-

  • According to researchers, the Indus Valley Civilisation is at least 8,000 years old and not 5,500 years. It existed well before the Egyptian (7000BC to 3000BC) and Mesopotamian (6500BC to 3100BC) civilisations. 

  • They also claimed that, they have found evidence of a pre-Harappan civilization that existed for at least 1,000 years before this.

  • Till now it was believed that IVC ended about 3,000 years ago due to climate change. But these researchers’ claims that though shifting monsoon patterns played a role in the eventual decline of IVC, it had more to do with the change in cropping patterns and storage of grains.

  • Researchers also believe that the IVC spread over a vast expanse of India, stretching to the banks of the now lost Saraswati river or the Ghaggar-Hakra river.

  • Researchers announced that Haryana’s Bhirrana as the oldest Harappan site and  Rakhigarhi in Haryana biggest site of IVC, even bigger than Mohenjo-daro.


Suggestions and Conclusion-

  • According to ongoing excavation, Harappan Civilisation might be much older than the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations. If it proved it will lead to a major shift in the study of ancient civilisations. 

  • A new development in Indian history should make everyone sit up and take notice. Recently excavation process in Sivaganga district Tamil Nadu found Harappan like site surfaces. Hence the process must continue and we must look with fresh minds at new evidence.

  • Government with help of ASI must conduct extensive excavation process and studies to outline our history more effectively. Study of these sites based on scientific method must continue and government should extend all required support.   


Helpline Number : 87501 87501
To Subscribe Newsletter and Get Updates.