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Q. Doping test in sports: Discuss the doping test in sports in detail.
Jul 27, 2016 Related to : GS Paper-2

Ans :

Introduction-

Summer Olympics is going to be held in Rio in coming August of this year. In this backdrop doping test is in news, as many players across various countries failed doping test. Russia is best example, as more than 65 players’ failed doping test and there was speculation of banning entire Russian contingent, but International Olympic Committee ruled out such a blanket ban.

Issues-

Issue of doping exists since ling time in sports. There exist various examples of athletes taking of performance enhancement drugs to brighten their winning chances.

Performance enhancing drugs-

  • These are substances used to improve performance in any form of activity. They usually work by causing the body to build more muscles or by limiting muscle fatigue.
  • They are mostly Anabolic Steroids, synthetic versions of the male hormone Testosterone and some are also non-steroidal PEDs. Such items has been banned by WADA
  • There have been several instances of dietary supplements containing prohibited substances. Yet there is no blanket ban on dietary supplements, but onus is on the athletes to choose their supplements, without violating WADA norms.

Regulatory authority-

  • At the national level the National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA), an independent body under Union Ministry of Sports monitors doping in all kind of sports.
  • At the international level, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) monitors doping in all kinds of competitive sports. Created in 1991, WADA is an independent international agency funded by sports organisations and associated countries. It monitors doping in sport based on the World Anti-Doping Code.

World Anti-Doping Code-

The WADA Code or simply the Code is a document aiming to harmonise anti-doping regulations in all sports and across countries. It has been adopted by over 600 sports organisations.

Time of test-

  • Any sportsperson competing in national or international events can be asked to give blood and/or urine samples at any point of time by anti-doping agency or sports events committee during the event.
  • Testing can be conducted in-competition and out-of-competition. Usually athletes who bag the finishing positions are tested.
  • Also, agency can randomly test any accredited athlete, even when not participating in an event.

Punishment for guilty-

  • According to WADA, sanctions for violating anti-doping regulations may range from a reprimand to a life-time ban.
  • The period of ban may vary depending on the type of anti-doping violation, the circumstances of an individual case, the substance, and the possible repetition of an anti-doping rule violation.
  • The decision to strip the medal, however, lies with the sports organisation.
  • Athlete is entitled for a fair hearing and appeal on any decision regarding a positive test or sanction imposed for an anti-doping rule violation.

Conclusion-

Even after having such detailed information about banned substances by WADA, still every year many doping case arises. Some may be intentional and others may be due to lack of awareness. Hence sports authority needs to adopt more serious approach in this regard.


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