(13 May, 2023)

Polygamy in India

For Prelims: Polygamy in India, Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, NFHS, Indian Penal Code, 1860, Muslim Personal Law Application Act of 1937.

For Mains: Polygamy in India among religious groups.

Why in News?

Recently, the Chief Minister of Assam has said that the state government will move to ban the practice of Polygamy through “Legislative Action”, and that an “Expert committee” would be formed to examine the issue.

What is Polygamy?

  • About:
    • Polygamy comes from two words: “poly,” which means “many,” and “gamos,” which means “marriage.” As a result, polygamy relates to marriages that are several.
      • Thus, polygamy is marriage in which a spouse of either sex may have more than one mate at the same time.
    • Traditionally, polygamy — mainly the situation of a man having more than one wife — was practiced widely in India. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 outlawed the practice.
    • The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 allows individuals to perform inter-religious marriages, but it forbids polygamy. The Act has been used by many Muslim women to help them stop practicing polygamy.
  • Types:
    • Polygyny:
      • It is the matrimonial structure in which a male individual has numerous wives. Polygamy in this form is more common or widespread.
      • Monarchs and emperors in the Indus Valley Civilisation were believed to have several wives.
    • Polyandry:
      • It is a type of marriage in which a female has several husbands.
      • Nevertheless, this can be an extremely uncommon occurrence.
    • Bigamy:
      • When one is already married additionally, the marriage continues to be valid, then married with someone else is known as bigamy plus the person committing this will be called bigamist.
      • It is considered a criminal offense in many countries, including India. In other words, it is the act of entering into a marriage with someone else while still being in a valid marriage with another person.
  • Prevalence in India:
    • The National Family Health Survey-5 (2019-20) showed the prevalence of polygamy was 2.1% among Christians, 1.9% among Muslims, 1.3% among Hindus, and 1.6% among other religious groups.
    • The data showed that the highest prevalence of polygynous marriages was in the Northeastern states with tribal populations.
    • A list of 40 districts with the highest polygyny rates was dominated by those with high tribal populations.

What are the Various Religious Laws Pertaining to Marriage in India?

  • Hindus:
    • The Hindu Marriage Act, which came into effect in 1955, made it clear that Hindu polygamy would be abolished and criminalized.
    • Under Section 11 Act, which states that polygamous marriages are void, the Act cautiously mandates monogamous relationships.
    • When someone performs it, they are punished under Section 17 of the very same Act, as well as Sections 494 and 495 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860.
      • Because Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs are all considered Hindus and do not have their own laws, the provisions in the Hindu Marriage Act apply to these three religious denominations as well.
  • Parsi:
    • The Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1936, had already outlawed bigamy.
    • Any Parsi, who has been married during his or her life, is subject to the penalties provided for by the India Penal Code for an offence to return to marriage during the lifetime of a Parsi or not, without being legally divorced by a wife or husband or having his or her previous marriage declared invalid or dissolved.
  • Muslims:
    • The clauses under the ‘Muslim Personal Law Application Act (Shariat) of 1937, as construed by the All India Muslim Personal Law Board, apply to Muslims in India.
    • Polygamy is not prohibited in Muslim legislation because it is recognised as a religious practice, hence they tend to preserve and practice it.
    • It is, nevertheless, clear that if this method is determined to violate the constitution’s basic rights, it can be overturned.
      • When there is a disagreement between the Indian Penal Code and personal laws, the personal laws are implemented since it is a legal principle that a specific law supersedes the general law.

What are the Judicial Perspectives Related to Polygamy?

  • Parayankandiyal v. K. Devi & Others (1996):
    • The Supreme Court (SC) concluded that monogamous relationships were the standard and ideology of Hindu society, which scorned and condemned a second marriage.
    • Polygamy was not allowed to become a part of Hindu culture due to the influence of religion.
  • State of Bombay v. Narasu Appa Mali (1951):
    • The Bombay High Court ruled that the Bombay (Prevention of Hindu Bigamy Marriage) Act, 1946 was not discriminatory.
    • The SC ruled that a state legislature has the authority to enact measures for public welfare and reforms, even if it violates the Hindu religion or custom.
  • Javed & Others v. State of Haryana & Others (2003):
    • The SC decided that under Article 25 freedom is subjected to social harmony, dignity, and wellness.
    • Muslim law allows for the marriage of four women, but it is not compulsory.
    • This will not be violating religious practice to not marry four women.

What is the Impact of Polygamy on Indian Society and the Constitutional Standpoint?

  • Polygamy has a significant impact on Indian society and has been debated for its validity from a constitutional standpoint, particularly in relation to religions such as Islam and Hinduism.
  • India is a secular state, where no religion is considered superior or subordinate to another, and each religion is treated equally under the law.
  • The Indian Constitution guarantees fundamental rights to all citizens, and any legislation that conflicts with these rights is deemed unconstitutional.
  • Article 13 of the Constitution specifies that any law that contravenes Part III of the Constitution is invalid.
    • In R.C. Cooper v. Union of India (1970), the SC observed that the theoretical approach that the component and construct of state intervention ascertain the severity of the safeguard that an underprivileged group may purport is incompatible with the constitutional provision, which aims to provide the ordinary citizen with the broadest possible safeguards of his fundamental rights.
  • Article 14 of the Constitution guarantees equal treatment and protection under the law to every individual within the territory of India.
  • The state is prohibited from discriminating against any person based on their religion, ethnicity, gender, or place of birth, according to Article 15(1) of the Constitution

In Which Countries Polygamy Legal?

  • Polygamy is permissible and legal exclusively for Muslims in nations such as India, Singapore, as well as Malaysia.
  • Polygamy is still recognised and practiced in nations such as Algeria, Egypt, and Cameroon. These are the only areas in the world where polygamy is still legal.


  • It is true that polygamy has existed in Indian society for a long time, and while it is now illegal, it is still practiced in some areas.
  • The practice of polygamy is not unique to any one religion or culture and has been justified in the past for various reasons.
  • However, as society has evolved, the justifications for polygamy are no longer valid, and the practice should be abandoned.

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Questions (PYQs)


Q. Which Article of the Constitution of India safeguards one’s right to marry the person of one’s choice? (2019)

(a) Article 19
(b) Article 21
(c) Article 25
(d) Article 29

Ans: (b)


  • The right to marry is a component of the right to life under Article 21 of the Constitution of India which states that “No person shall be deprived of his life and personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law”.
  • In Lata Singh v. State of Uttar Pradesh 2006, the Supreme Court viewed the right to marry as a component of the right to life under Article 21 of Indian Constitution.
  • Therefore, option (b) is the correct answer.


Q. Customs and traditions suppress reason leading to obscurantism. Do you agree? (2020)

Source: IE

SC on Maharashtra Governor’s Call for Floor Test

For Prelims: SC, Governor, Floor Test, 10th Schedule the Constitution, Anti-Defection Law, Whip.

For Mains: Governor’s Power to call for Floor Test.

Why in News?

Recently, the Supreme Court (SC) has held that the decision of the (former) Governor of Maharashtra to call for a Floor Test, asking the then Chief Minister to prove his majority in the house, was not justified. However, the SC cannot restore his government as he did not face the floor test.

What is a Floor Test?

  • It is a term used for the test of the majority. If there are doubts against the Chief Minister (CM) of a State, he/she can be asked to prove the majority in the House.
    • In the case of a coalition government, the CM may be asked to move a vote of confidence and win a majority.
  • In the absence of a clear majority, when there is more than an individual’s stake to form the government, the Governor may call for a special session to see who has the majority to form the government.
    • Some legislators may be absent or choose not to vote. The numbers are then considered based only on those MLAs who were present to vote.

What is the Background?

  • In 2022, the Uddhav Thackeray-led government was toppled and replaced by another government, comprising a faction of the Shiv Sena. The leader of the breakaway Sena faction, Eknath Shinde, became the new Chief Minister of Maharashtra.
  • Thereafter, petitions were filed by the Thackeray group challenging the then Maharashtra Governor’s decision to call for a trust vote before his resignation.

What is the SC’s Ruling?

  • On Floor Test:
    • The floor test should not be used to solve problems within a political party and that party disagreements should be resolved according to the party's constitution or other methods.
  • Appointing a Whip:
    • The Speaker must only recognize the Whip duly authorised by the political party with reference to the provisions of the party constitution. The appointment of both the whip and the leader of the party in the House should only be done by the political party and not the legislature party.
      • In parliamentary parlance, a whip may refer to both a written order to members of a party in the House to abide by a certain direction, and to a designated official of the party who is authorised to issue such a direction.
        • The concept of the whip was inherited from colonial British rule.
  • Disqualification on the Ground of Defection:
    • The Speaker is the authority to adjudicate petitions for disqualification under the 10th Schedule of the Constitution.
    • The Court cannot ordinarily adjudicate petitions for disqualification under the 10th Schedule.
      • Notices were issued by the then Deputy Speaker of the Maharashtra Assembly, against 40 rebel MLAs under the 10th Schedule which deals with disqualification on the grounds of Defection.

What is the 10th Schedule of the Constitution?

  • Anti Defection Law: The 10th schedule of the Indian Constitution, also known as the "Anti-Defection Law," was added by the 52nd Amendment Act of 1985.
    • It lays down the provisions related to the disqualification of members of Parliament (MPs) and state legislatures on the grounds of defection.
    • It seeks to promote political stability and discipline among political parties by preventing elected members from changing parties after they have been elected.
  • Disqualification: According to it, a member of Parliament or a state legislature is disqualified if he/she voluntarily gives up the membership of the political party on whose ticket he/she was elected, or if he/she votes or abstains from voting in the House against the directives of the political party.
    • However, a member is not disqualified if he/she leaves the party due to a merger of two or more political parties or if the party itself merges with another party.
    • As per the 52nd amendment, a 'defection' by 1/3rd of the elected members of a political party was considered a 'merger'.

What are the Powers with the Governor to Call a Floor Test?

  • About:
    • Article 174 of the Constitution authorizes the Governor to summon, dissolve and prorogue the state legislative assembly.
    • According to Article 175(2), the Governor can summon the House and call for a floor test to prove whether the government has the numbers.
      • However, the Governor can exercise the above only as per Article 163 of the Constitution which says that the Governor acts on the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister (when the assembly is not in session).
      • However, when the House is in session, it is the Speaker of the Assembly who can call for a floor test.
  • Governor’s Discretionary Power:
    • According to Article 163 (1), there will be a group of Ministers, led by the Chief Minister, who will assist and advise the Governor in carrying out his functions. However, the Governor will have the final say in any matters where he is required to exercise his discretion as per the constitution.
      • The Constitution makes it clear that if any question arises whether a matter falls within the governor’s discretion or not, the decision of the governor is final and the validity of anything done by him cannot be called in question on the ground that he ought or ought not to have acted in his discretion.
    • The Governor can exercise his discretionary power under Article 174, when the chief minister has lost the support of the House and his strength is debatable.
    • Generally, when doubts are cast on the chief minister that he has lost the majority, the opposition and the Governor would rally for a floor test.

What are Previous Rulings on the Governor's Floor Test Call?

  • Nabam Rebia and Bamang Felix vs Deputy Speaker case (2016): The SC said that the power to summon the House is not solely vested in the Governor and should be exercised with aid and advice of the Council of Ministers and not at his own.
  • Shivraj Singh Chouhan & Ors vs Speaker (2020): The SC upheld the powers of the Speaker to call for a floor test if there is a prima facie view that the government has lost its majority.

Source: IE

Enforcement Directorate

For Prelims: Enforcement Director, Supreme Court, FATF, Money Laundering, Drug Trafficking, FEOA.

For Mains: Enforcement Director, its functions and Related Issues.

Why in News?

Recently, the Centre has informed the Supreme Court (SC) that the tenure of the Chief of Enforcement Directorate (ED) will not continue in office beyond November 2023.

What is the Issue?

  • In November 2021, the President of India issued two ordinances allowing the tenure of the Director of the ED to be extended from two years to up to five years, with the possibility of three annual extensions.
  • This move was upheld by the SC, which allowed the extension of ED Chief but only in rare and exceptional cases for a short period.
    • The SC stated that there is no restriction on the Central Government's power to appoint the ED beyond a two-year period. Additionally, they clarified that the phrase "not less than two years" in Section 25(d) of the Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003 should not be interpreted to mean "not more than two years."
    • The court said, “there is no fetter on the power of the Central Government in appointing the Director of Enforcement beyond a period of two years”.
  • The government’s recent extension of the tenure is cited as a reason for a pending review by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
    • The Union Finance Ministry stated in an affidavit that extension in the term of the director of ED was necessitated from the administrative standpoint wherein continuity of the head of the organisation is required for several cases which are at crucial juncture and require historical knowledge and background for supervision of such cases.
    • A newly appointed director would take considerable time to take stock and acclimatise to the new office and the working of the ED and could find it difficult to operate at an optimal level of efficiency.
  • This decision has been challenged in the SC again, as some are questioning the legality of extending the tenure beyond what was previously deemed acceptable by the court. The case is currently pending.

What is the ED?

  • About:
    • The ED is a multi-disciplinary organization mandated with investigation of offences of money laundering and violations of foreign exchange laws.
      • It functions under the Department of Revenue of the Ministry of Finance.
    • As a premier financial investigation agency of the Government of India, the ED functions in strict compliance with the Constitution and Laws of India.
  • Structure:
    • Headquarters: ED with its headquarters at New Delhi, is headed by the Director of Enforcement.
      • There are five regional offices at Mumbai, Chennai, Chandigarh, Kolkata and Delhi headed by Special Directors of Enforcement.
    • Recruitment: Recruitment of the officers is done directly and by drawing officers from other investigation agencies.
      • It comprises officers of IRS (Indian Revenue Services), IPS (Indian Police Services) and IAS (Indian Administrative Services) such as Income Tax officer, Excise officer, Customs officer, and police.
    • Tenure: Two years, but directors’ tenure can be extended from two to five years by giving three annual extensions.
  • Functions:
    • COFEPOSA: Under the Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974 (COFEPOSA), this Directorate is empowered to sponsor cases of preventive detention with regard to contraventions of FEMA.
    • Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA): It is a civil law enacted to consolidate and amend the laws relating to facilitate external trade and payments and to promote the orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India.
      • ED has been given the responsibility to conduct investigation into suspected contraventions of foreign exchange laws and regulations, to adjudicate and impose penalties on those adjudged to have contravened the law.
    • Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA): Following the recommendations of the FATF India enacted PMLA.
      • The ED has been entrusted with the responsibility of executing the provisions of PMLA by conducting investigation to trace the assets derived from proceeds of crime, to provisionally attach the property and to ensure prosecution of the offenders and confiscation of the property by the Special court.
    • Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018 (FEOA): Lately, with the increase in the number of cases relating to economic offenders taking shelter in foreign countries, the Government of India introduced the Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018 (FEOA) and ED is entrusted with its enforcement.
      • This law was enacted to deter economic offenders from evading the process of Indian law by remaining outside the jurisdiction of Indian courts.
      • Under this law, the ED is mandated to attach the properties of the fugitive economic offenders who have escaped from India warranting arrest and provide for the confiscation of their properties to the Central Government.

What are the Issues related to ED?

  • Misuse of Power:
    • The ED has a lot of power and discretion in investigating economic crimes like money laundering, and they don't need permission from the government to prosecute politicians or government officials.
    • However, this power has been misused, as even minor crimes have been brought under the purview PMLA, which was originally meant to combat money laundering related to Drug Trafficking.
  • Lack of Transparency:
    • There is also a lack of transparency in how the ED selects cases to investigate, and they have been known to target opposition parties.
    • Convictions in cases by the ED are rare, but media trials have already ruined the accused's reputation.
      • Between 2005 and 2013-14, there were zero convictions, and between 2014-15 and 2021-22, only 23 cases were under conviction out of 888 cases registered.
  • Political Bias:
    • There have been allegations that political figures who have switched to the ruling party have been given favorable treatment by the ED. In some cases, these individuals have reportedly been given "clean chits" or seen the ED slow down in their investigations into economic offenses such as money laundering.
    • These allegations have raised concerns about potential political bias and lack of independence in the ED's actions.

Way Forward

  • The ED has extensive powers under PMLA, but these should not be used to abuse political opponents. Investigations should not become punishments, and cases should be resolved quickly to ensure speedy trials and convictions.
  • Fighting corruption requires reforming investigations and ensuring transparency and fairness in the adjudication process. The ED is trying to balance speed with integrity. Rather than extreme measures, the solution is likely to be systemic fixes.
  • Changing the way government agencies operate is necessary to substantially reduce corruption.

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q. Discuss how emerging technologies and globalisation contribute to money laundering. Elaborate measures to tackle the problem of money laundering both at national and international levels. (2021)

Source: TH

Harit Sagar: The Green Port Guidelines 2023

For Prelims: Harit Sagar Green Port Guidelines 2023, Zero Carbon Emission Goal, Sagar Shreshtha Samman awards, Green Reporting Initiative (GRI) standard.

For Mains: Harit Sagar: The Green Port Guidelines 2023, Zero Carbon Emission Goal.

Why in News?

Recently, the Ministry of Ports, Shipping & Waterways has launched 'Harit Sagar' Green Port Guidelines 2023 to achieve the Zero Carbon Emission Goal.

  • Sagar Shreshtha Samman awards were also conferred to major ports for their exceptional achievements in various operational parameters.

What are Harit Sagar Guidelines 2023?

  • About:
    • Harit Sagar is a Sanskrit term that means “green ocean”. It reflects the vision of making India’s ports more environmentally friendly and sustainable.
    • They also cover aspects of the National Green Hydrogen Mission pertaining to ports, development of green hydrogen facility, LNG bunkering, and Offshore Wind Energy among others.
    • These guidelines also provide the provision for adopting the global Green Reporting Initiative (GRI) standard.
  • Objectives:
    • To promote the adoption of best practices and technologies for green port development and operations, such as renewable energy, water conservation, biodiversity protection, and climate resilience.
    • To minimize waste through Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose and Recycle to attain zero waste discharge from port operations.
    • To establish a rating system for assessing and benchmarking the environmental performance of ports based on various indicators and parameters.
    • To incentivize and recognize the ports that achieve high standards of environmental excellence and sustainability.
    • To facilitate the integration of green port principles into the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of port infrastructure and services.
  • Significance:
  • Benefits:
    • Enhancing the competitiveness and attractiveness of ports by improving their efficiency, reliability, safety, and quality of service.
    • Reducing the operational costs and increasing the revenue generation potential of ports by optimizing the use of resources and minimizing waste.
    • Improving the environmental compliance.
    • Mitigating the environmental impacts and risks of port activities by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise pollution, water pollution, and marine litter.
    • Contributing to the national and global goals of sustainable development and climate action by supporting the transition to a low-carbon and circular economy.

What are the Challenges and Barriers for Implementing?

  • Lack of awareness and capacity among port stakeholders.
  • Lack of coordination and collaboration among different agencies and sectors.
  • Inadequate data and information on environmental aspects of ports.
  • Weak enforcement and monitoring mechanisms for environmental compliance.

What are India’s Efforts for Green Port Development?

  • Initiatives:
    • Green Port Awards, Green Port Policy, and Sagarmala Programme.
  • Setting Targets:
    • Increase the share of renewable energy in ports, reduce carbon emissions per ton of cargo handled, and adopt green fuels and technologies for port operations.
  • Selection as Pilot Country:
    • India selected as the first country under the IMO Green Voyage 2050 project to conduct a pilot project related to green shipping.

What is the Sagar Shreshtha Samman Award?

  • The Sagar Shreshtha Samman Award is conferred by the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways to major ports in India for their outstanding achievements in various operational parameters.
    • The award recognizes ports that demonstrate high standards of environmental excellence and sustainability.
  • The awards for FY2022-23 are:


  • The Harit Sagar guidelines are a visionary initiative that will transform the Indian port sector and make it more sustainable and resilient in the face of the changing climate and market conditions.
  • The guidelines will not only benefit the ports but also the environment and society at large.
    • They will also enhance India’s image and reputation as a responsible maritime nation that cares for its environment and its people. The Harit Sagar guidelines are a shining example of how India is leading the way in green port development and operations.

Source: PIB

Mpox no Longer a Global Health Emergency: WHO

Why in News?

The World Health Organization (WHO) has announced that Mpox, formerly known as monkeypox, no longer constitutes a global health emergency.

  • Additionally, the WHO has recently announced that Covid-19 no longer represents a "global health emergency".

What Led to the Decision?

  • The emergency committee for mpox recommended that the outbreak no longer represents a public health emergency of international concern.
  • The committee's recommendation was based on a decrease in reported cases and a robust response from countries affected by the virus.

What is Mpox?

  • About:
    • Mpox is a viral zoonotic disease with symptoms similar to smallpox, although with less clinical severity.
    • The infection was first discovered in 1958 following two outbreaks of a pox-like disease in colonies of monkeys kept for research — which led to the name ‘monkeypox’.
  • Symptoms:
    • Infected people break out in a rash that looks a lot like chicken pox. But the fever, malaise, and headache from Monkeypox are usually more severe than in chicken pox infection.
    • In the early stage of the disease, Monkeypox can be distinguished from smallpox because the lymph gland gets enlarged.
  • Transmission:
    • Primary infection is through direct contact with the blood, bodily fluids, or cutaneous or mucosal lesions of an infected animal. Eating inadequately cooked meat of infected animals is also a risk factor.
  • Status:
    • More than 87,000 cases of mpox and 140 deaths have been reported from 111 countries.
    • The past three months have seen almost 90% fewer cases reported compared to the previous three months.
  • Treatment and Vaccine:
    • Mpox is treated with supportive care. Vaccines and therapeutics developed for smallpox and approved for use in some countries can be used for mpox in some circumstances.
  • Ongoing Challenges:
    • Despite the lifting of the global health emergency status, mpox continues to pose significant public health challenges.
      • A robust, proactive, and sustainable response is required to address the lingering impact of mpox and prevent future outbreaks.
      • Ensuring access to tests, vaccines, and treatments for those most in need remains a crucial aspect of the response.

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q. Critically examine the role of WHO in providing global health security during the Covid-19 pandemic. (2020)

Source: HT

Target Olympic Podium Scheme

Why in News?

Olympian and World Championship silver medallist archer Atanu Das has been re-introduced in the Target Olympic Podium Scheme (TOPS).

  • Other big names to be included in TOPS are rifle shooter Mehuli Ghosh and 15-year-old Tilottama Sen, who won bronze in 10m air rifle event at International Shooting Sport Federation World Cup 2023 held in Cairo, Egypt.
  • A total of 27 new names were inducted in the TOPS Core and Development lists which now takes the total number of TOPS athletes to 270 (101 in Core, 169 in Development).

What is the Target Olympic Podium Scheme (TOPS)?

  • About:
    • To improve India’s performance at Olympics and Paralympics, the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (MYAS) started the Target Olympic Podium Scheme (TOPS) in September 2014.
      • This was revamped in April 2018 to establish a technical support team for managing the TOPS athletes and providing holistic support.
  • High Priority Sports:
    • The Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports is responsible for appointment of TOPS members with emphasis on ensuring representation from ‘High-Priority’ sports (Archery, Badminton, Boxing, Hockey, Shooting and Wrestling).
  • Recent Success:
    • The TOPS sponsored athletes gained relative success at the 2016 Rio Olympics and the 2018 Commonwealth Games.
      • P V Sindhu and Sakshi Malik captured silver and bronze in Badminton and Wrestling respectively at the 2016 Rio Olympics.
      • In the 2016 Paralympic Games, the TOPS Athletes won 2 Gold, 1 Silver and 1 Bronze demonstrating the effectiveness of the Scheme.
    • In the Commonwealth Games, out of the 70 athletes who won medals at the, 47 of them were supported under the TOP Scheme.
  • Mission Olympic Cell:
    • The Mission Olympic Cell is a dedicated body created to assist the athletes who are selected under the TOP Scheme.
      • The MOC is under the Chairmanship of the Director General, Sports Authority of India (DG, SAI).
  • National Sports Development Fund (NSDF):
    • The National Sports Development Fund (NSDF) was established in November, 1998 under Charitable Endowments Act, 1890 with the aim of promotion of sports and games in the country.
    • NSDF has been vital in the working of TOPS across disciplines.
  • Upcoming Olympic Events:
    • Summer Olympics 2024: Paris, France
    • Winter Olympics 2026: Milan-Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy
    • Summer Olympics 2028: Los Angeles, USA
    • Summer Olympics 2032: Brisbane, Australia

What are the Government Initiatives Related to Promotion of Sports?

UPSC Civil Services Examination Previous Year Question (PYQ)


Q. Consider the following statements in respect of the 32nd Summer Olympics:

  1. The official motto for this Olympics is ‘A New World’.
  2. Sport Climbing, Surfing, Skateboarding, Karate and Baseball are included in this Olympics.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only 
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (b)

Source: IE

Rapid Fire Current Affairs

National Technology Day 2023

The Prime Minister of India recently inaugurated the National Technology Day 2023 program. The event marked the beginning of the celebration of the 25th year of National Technology Day, which would be held from May 11th to May 14th featuring dedicated multiple projects related to scientific and technological advancement in the country, with a total worth of more than Rs 5,800 crore. The theme of the event was "School to Start-ups - igniting young minds to innovate.

The projects for which the foundation stone was laid include Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory - India (LIGO-India) in Hingoli, the Homi Bhabha Cancer Hospital and Research Centre in Jatni, Odisha, and the Platinum Jubilee Block of Tata Memorial Hospital in Mumbai.

The PM also highlighted the significance of May 11th in India's history, as it commemorates the day when India's scientists achieved a remarkable feat in Pokhran Nuclear Testing.

Addressing the role of technology in defence, the PM mentioned Innovations for Defense Excellence (iDEX) and India's goal of a self-reliant defence sector. He also highlighted advancements in the space sector, such as SSLV and PSLV orbital platforms, and the need to provide opportunities for youth and start-ups in this domain.

Read more: National Technology Day, Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory - India (LIGO-India), Pokhran Nuclear Testing

Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain 2023 Campaign

Recently, the National Water Mission (NWM), Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation (DoWR), Ministry of Jal Shakti organised a workshop- cum- orientation programme at Dr. Ambedkar International Centre, New Delhi for Central Nodal Officers (CNO) and Technical Officers (TO), who will be visiting the 150 water-stressed districts across the nation, for ensuring effective and action-oriented implementation of the “Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain” – 2023 (JSA: CTR).

JSA: CTR- 2023 is 4th in the series of Jal Shakti Abhiyan launched in 2019 and aims to address water stress in 150 districts across India and focuses on water conservation, renovation of water bodies, bore well recharge, watershed development, and afforestation.

The 2023 campaign is being implemented from 4th March 2023 to 30th November 2023 in all the districts (rural as well as urban areas) of the country with the theme “Source Sustainability for Drinking Water”.

The workshop also discussed the use of GIS technology, data uploading, and other measures to ensure effective implementation.

Read more: National Water Mission (NWM)

ISSF World Cup, Baku

Sarabjot Singh and TS Divya emerged as champions in the mixed team 10m air pistol event at the ISSF World Cup in Baku, Azerbaijan. They defeated Damir Mikec and Zorana Arunovic of Serbia to claim the gold medal.

The ISSF World Cup is an international shooting sport competition organised by the International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF). The ISSF is the governing body for the Olympic shooting events and is responsible for overseeing and promoting the shooting sport on a global scale.

Read more: ISSF World Cup

National MSME Council Meet

Recently, the Ministry of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSME) organised the inaugural meeting of the National MSME Council, in New Delhi.

The council has been established as an administrative and functional body to oversee coordination between central ministries and departments, promote collaboration between the central and state governments, and monitor the progress of reforms in the MSME sector, including the Raising and Accelerating MSME Performance (RAMP) program.

The RAMP program launched in June 2022 aims to enhance market access, credit availability, governance, and environmental sustainability for MSMEs.

Read more: Raising and Accelerating MSME Performance (RAMP)