World Water Day 2022

For Prelims: World Water Day, Sustainable Development Goals.

For Mains: Conservation,Significance of World Water Day.

Why in News?

World Water Day is celebrated on 22nd March Every Year to highlight the importance of water.

  • On the Occasion of the World Water Day UN (united Nations) University’s Canadian-based Institute for Water Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH) has published an assessment report, showing the levels of water security in Africa overall are unacceptably low.
  • The World Water Day 2022 theme sets the focus for the annual World Water Development Report.

What is World Water Day?

  • Aim: The Day aims to support the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 6: water and sanitation for all by 2030.
  • Theme: Groundwater: making the invisible visible.
    • The theme was decided by UN-water at its 30th meeting in Rome. It was proposed by the International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre (IGRAC).
  • History:
    • The idea for this international day goes back to 1992, the year in which the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro took place.
    • That same year, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution by which 22nd March of each year was declared World Day for Water, to be observed starting in 1993.
    • Later on, other celebrations and events were added. For instance, the International Year of Cooperation in the Water Sphere 2013, and the current International Decade for Action on Water for Sustainable Development, 2018-2028.
  • Significance:
    • The day's intention is to inspire people around the world to learn more about water-related issues and to take action to make a difference.
      • While water covers almost 70% of the planet, freshwater only amounts to about 3% of it, out of which two-thirds is frozen or inaccessible and unavailable for use.
    • These observances serve to reaffirm that water and sanitation measures are key to poverty reduction, economic growth, and environmental sustainability.
  • Other Important Days :

What does the UN World Water Development Report 2022 say?

  • Groundwater, which accounts for 99% of all liquid freshwater, has the potential to provide societies with tremendous social, economic and environmental benefits and opportunities.
  • The groundwater already provides almost half of the total water used for domestic purposes including drinking water. The water resource has though been mismanaged, undervalued and abused.
  • The report describes groundwater to be central to the fight against poverty and achieving food and water security and even the creation of jobs and socio-economic development.
  • The Asia-Pacific region is the largest groundwater abstractor in the world, containing seven out of the ten countries that extract most groundwater (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey).
    • These countries alone account for roughly 60% of the world’s total groundwater withdrawal.
  • The present dependence on groundwater will only increase due to increasing water demand by all sectors and increasing disruption in rainfall patterns.
  • The report states that it all starts with making the invisible visible and the action would require strong and concerted efforts to manage and use it sustainably.

UPSC Civil Service Examination, Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q. On the planet earth, most of the freshwater exists as ice caps and glaciers. Out of the remaining freshwater, the largest proportion (2013)

(a) is found in atmosphere as moisture and clouds

(b) is found in freshwater lakes and rivers

(c) exists as groundwater

(d) exists as soil moisture

Ans: (c)

Source: IE