World Human Rights Day | 08 Dec 2021

Why in News

Every year Human Rights Day is celebrated on 10th December all around the world.

  • Freedom in the World 2021 report released earlier this year had downgraded India’s status from ‘Free’ to ‘Partly Free’.

Key Points

  • World Human Rights Day:
    • About:
    • Theme 2021:
      • “EQUALITY – Reducing inequalities, advancing human rights” .
    • Objective:
      • To promote equality, peace, justice, freedom and the protection of human dignity. Every individual is entitled to rights irrespective of race, colour, religion, sex, language, or social status.
  • Human Rights:
    • These are rights inherent to all human beings, regardless of race, sex, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status.
    • These include the right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, freedom of opinion and expression, the right to work and education, and many more.
    • Nelson Mandela had stated ‘To deny people their human rights is to challenge their very humanity’.
  • International Human Rights Conventions and Bodies:
    • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR):
      • The 30 rights and freedoms include civil and political rights, like the right to life, liberty, free speech and privacy and economic, social and cultural rights, like the right to social security, health and education, etc.
        • India took an active part in drafting of the UDHR.
      • The UDHR is not a treaty, so it does not directly create legal obligations for countries.
      • The UDHR, together with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its two Optional Protocols (on the complaints procedure and on the death penalty) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and its Optional Protocol, form the so-called International Bill of Human Rights.
    • Other Conventions:
    • Human Rights Council:
      • The Human Rights Council is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights. It is made up of 47 United Nations Member States which are elected by the UN General Assembly.
      • The most innovative feature of the Human Rights Council is the Universal Periodic Review. This unique mechanism involves a review of the human rights records of all 192 UN member states once every four years.
      • The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) serves as the secretariat for the Human Rights Council.
    • Amnesty International:
      • An international organisation of volunteers who campaign for human rights. This organisation brings out independent reports on the violation of human rights all over the world.

Human Rights in India

Source: DTE