Women and Men in India 2022 | 20 Mar 2023

For Prelims: Sex Ratio, Gender Description, Fertility Rate.

For Mains: Women and Men in India 2022 Report.

Why in News?

Recently, the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has released Women and Men in India 2022 report.

What are the Findings of the Report?

  • Sex Ratio:
    • The sex ratio at birth went up by three points to 907 in 2018-20 from 904 in 2017-19.
    • India’s sex ratio (females per 1,000 males) is expected to improve to 952 by 2036, up significantly from 943 in 2011.
  • Labour Force Participation:
    • India’s Labour Force Participation Rate for those above 15 years of age has been on the rise since 2017-2018. However, women are severely lagging behind men.
      • The rate was 77.2 for males and 32.8 for females in 2021-22, with no improvement in this disparity over the years.
    • Less participation is due to social factors, educational qualifications and gender discrimination in terms of wages and opportunities in the workplace.
  • Population Growth:
    • The population growth, already on a downward trend from 2.2% in 1971 to 1.1% in 2021, is projected to fall further to 0.58% in 2036.
    • In absolute figures, this translates into 1.2 billion people with 48.5% female population as per Census 2011 to an expected 1.5 billion in 2036 with a marginal improvement in the female population share (48.8%).
  • Age of Sex Structure:
    • India’s age and sex structure, as per which the population under 15 years of age is expected to decline and the population above 60 years is expected to increase by 2036.
    • Accordingly, the population pyramid will undergo a shift as the base of the pyramid in 2036 would narrow down, while the middle would be broadened.
      • The age and sex structure of a country’s population can affect gender issues in a variety of ways. Age structure impacting various aspects of societies is determined primarily by trends in fertility and mortality.

  • Access to Health Information and Services:
    • Lack of access to resources and decision-making power, restrictions on mobility, etc make access to health information and services more difficult for women and girls than men and boys.
  • Fertility Rate:
    • The age-specific fertility rate for the 20-24 year and 25-29 years age group between 2016 and 2020 reduced from 135.4 and 166.0 to 113.6 and 139.6 respectively.
      • This is likely a function of economic independence by attaining proper education and securing a job.
    • The same indicator for the 35-39 years age group increased from 32.7 in 2016 to 35.6 in 2020.
      • The mean age for marriage has improved marginally up from 22.1 years in 2017 to 22.7 years in 2020.

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Question (PYQ)

Q. Why do some of the most prosperous regions of India have an adverse sex ratio for women? Give your arguments. (2014)

Source: DTE