Adaptation Gap Report 2022 | 05 Nov 2022

For Prelims: United Nations Environment Programme’s (UNEP), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), COP 26, COP 27

For Mains: Findings of Adaptation Gap Report 2022, Steps Suggested by the Report, India’s Initiatives regarding Climate Finance.

Why in News?

According to the United Nations Environment Programme’s (UNEP) Adaptation Gap Report, 2022, global efforts in adaptation planning, financing and implementation are not enough to prepare vulnerable communities around the world to adapt to the rising risks from the impacts of climate change.

  • The report found some progress on adaptation plans from national governments, but they are not backed by finance.

What are the Findings of the Report?

  • A third of the 197 parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have incorporated quantified and time-bound targets on adaptation. And 90% of them have considered gender and disadvantaged groups.
  • International adaptation finance flows are 5-10 times lower than required and this gap continues to grow. Finance for adaptation increased to USD 29 billion in 2020, a 4% increase over 2019.
    • This is when developing countries' estimated annual adaptation needs are USD 160-USD 340 billion by 2030 and USD 315-USD 565 billion by 2050.

What are the Steps Suggested by the Report?

  • A Nature-based Approach: The report highlighted that the best way was to link actions on mitigation and adaptation in terms of planning, financing and implementation, which would provide co-benefits.
    • One example of this could be nature-based solutions.
  • Climate Adaptation: Countries need to back the strong words in the Glasgow Climate Pact with strong action to increase adaptation investments and outcomes, starting at COP27.
  • Other Strategies: The adaptation gap must be addressed in four critical ways:
    • Increase Financing for Adaptation: There is a need for developed countries to provide a clear roadmap for their promise of doubling finance for adaptation to USD 40 billion, which was decided at COP 26 in Glasgow.
    • A New Business Model: The world urgently needs a new business model for turning adaptation priorities into investable projects as there is a mismatch between what governments propose and what financiers consider investable.
    • Need for Data Implementation: The availability of climate risk data and information, an issue for adaptation planning in many developing countries.
    • Modified Warning Systems: The implementation and operationalisation of early warning systems against extreme weather events and slow onset changes such as sea level rise.

What are India’s Initiatives regarding Climate Finance?

  • National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC):
    • It was established in 2015 to meet the cost of adaptation to climate change for the State and Union Territories of India that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
  • National Clean Energy Fund:
    • The Fund was created to promote clean energy, and funded through an initial carbon tax on the use of coal by industries.
    • It is governed by an Inter-Ministerial Group with the Finance Secretary as the Chairman.
    • Its mandate is to fund research and development of innovative clean energy technology in the fossil and non-fossil fuel-based sectors.
  • National Adaptation Fund:
    • The fund was established in 2014 with a corpus of Rs. 100 crores with the aim of bridging the gap between the need and the available funds.
    • The fund is operated under the Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change (MoEF&CC).

What is United Nations Environment Programme?

  • The UNEP is a leading global environmental authority established on 5th June 1972.
  • Functions: It sets the global environmental agenda, promotes the sustainable development within the United Nations system, and serves as an authoritative advocate for global environment protection.
  • Major Reports: Emission Gap Report, Global Environment Outlook, Frontiers, Invest into Healthy Planet.
  • Major Campaigns: Beat Pollution, UN75, World Environment Day, Wild for Life.
  • Headquarters: Nairobi, Kenya.

What is United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)?

  • UNFCCC was signed in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development also known as the Earth Summit, the Rio Summit or the Rio Conference.
  • The UNFCCC entered into force in 1994 and has been ratified by 197 countries.
  • It is the parent treaty of the 2015 Paris Agreement. It is also the parent treaty of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.
  • The UNFCCC secretariat (UN Climate Change) is the United Nations entity tasked with supporting the global response to the threat of climate change. It is located in Bonn, Germany.
  • Its objective is to achieve stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous repercussions within a time frame so as to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally and enable sustainable development.

UPSC Civil Services Examination Previous Year Question (PYQ)


Q. “Momentum for Change: Climate Neutral Now” is an initiative launched by (2018)

(a) The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

(b) The UNEP Secretariat

(c) The UNFCCC Secretariat

(d) The World Meteorological Organisation

Ans: (c)

  • “Momentum for Change: Climate Neutral Now”, is an initiative launched by the UNFCCC secretariat in 2015.
    • The initiative is a pillar under Momentum for Change which seeks to achieve climate neutrality.
  • Climate neutrality is a three-step process, which requires individuals, companies and governments to measure their climate footprint; reduce their emissions as much as possible and offset what they cannot reduce with UN certified emission reductions.
    • Therefore, option (c) is the correct answer.

Q. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international treaty drawn at (2010)

(a) United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, 1972

(b) UN Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 1992

(c) World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, 2002

(d) UN Climate Change Conference, Copenhagen, 2009

Ans: (b)


Q. Describe the major outcomes of the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). What are the commitments made by India in this conference? (2021)

Q. Discuss global warming and mention its effects on the global climate. Explain the control measures to bring down the level of greenhouse gases which cause global warming, in the light of the Kyoto Protocol, 1997. (2022)

Source: DTE