Haryana GK | 02 Aug 2021
- Haryana was carved out of Punjab on 1st November 1966, as the 17th Indian state.
- There are diverse interpretations about the origin of the name of Haryana. In ancient time, this region was known as Brahmavarta, Aryavarta and Brahomoupdesa.
- These names are based on the emergence of Brahma-Lord on the land of Haryana ; the abode of Aryas and home of the preachings of vedic cultures and other rites.
- Its other names Bahudhanyaka and Bahudhana suggest Haryana as the land of plentiful grains and immense riches.
- Haryana is located in the northwest India between 27 degree 39' N to 30 degree 35' N latitude and between 74 degree 28' E to 77 degree 36' E longitude and with an altitude between 700-3600 ft above sea level.
- The capital of Haryana, Chandigarh, is shared by its neighboring state of Punjab, designed by Swiss born French architect, Le Corbusier.
- At 44,212 sq km, Haryana covers 1.34% of India's geographical area.
- In 2016- 17, Haryana reported a per capita income of 1,80,174 per annum as compared to the national average of 1,03,818.
- Haryana has 6 administrative divisions - Ambala, Rohtak, Gurgaon, Hisar, Karnal and Faridabad.
- 22 districts
- 72 sub-divisions
- 93 revenue tehsils
- 50 sub-tehsils
- 140 community development blocks
- 154 cities and towns
- 7356* villages and 6212 villages panchayats.
- Capital: Chandigarh
- Governor: Sh. Satyadeo Narain Arya
- Chief Minister: Sh. Manohar Lal Khattar
- Chief Secretary: Sh. Depinder Singh Dhesi
- Haryana Legislative Assembly Speaker : Kanwar Pal
- Vidhan Sabha seats: 90
- Lok Sabha seats: 10
- Rajya Sabha seats: 05
- High Court : Punjab and Haryana High court (Chandigarh)
- Chief Justice : Justice Krishna Murari
- State Animal: Black Buck
- State Bird: Black Francolin
- State Tree: Peepal
- State Flower: Lotus
- First Governor : Sh. Dharma Vira
- First Chief Minister: Sh. Pt. Bhagwat Dayal Sharma
*According to Census 2011, Haryana has 6841 Villages.
Formation of Haryana
- The area included in the present state of Haryana was ceded to the British East India Company in 1803.
- In 1832 it was transferred to the then North-Western Provinces of British India, and in 1858 Haryana became a part of Punjab.
- Due to the repressive policy of the British Government, no significant development was made in the region in the sphere of education, trades, industry, means of communication and irrigation. Consequently it remained backward throughout the 19th century.
- The union between Haryana and Punjab was awkward, largely because of religious and linguistic differences between the two regions: Punjabi-speaking Sikhs of Punjab vis-à-vis Hindi-speaking Hindus of Haryana.
- With the change of capital from Calcutta to Delhi on December 12,1911, the Haryana region was further isolated.
- In 1920’s, certain changes in Delhi district were suggested by the Muslim League and people of the region to Sir J.P. Thomson, the Commissioner of Delhi.
- In 1928, all parties conference at Delhi again made a demand for extension of the boundaries of Delhi.
- Further, the agitation for a separate state of Haryana was led by Lala Lajpat Rai and Asaf Ali, both prominent figures in the Indian national movement, as well as by Neki Ram Sharma, who headed a committee to cultivate the concept of an autonomous state.
- At the Second Round Table Conference in 1931, Sir Geoffrey Corbert, Financial Commissioner of the then Punjab Government and Secretary of the Indian Delegation to the Round Table Conference,suggested the reorganisation of the Punjab boundaries and the separation of the Ambala Division from Punjab.
- In 1932, Deshbandhu Gupta stated that "Hindi speaking region had never been a part of Punjab. It was essential for the development of this region to separate it from Punjab and form a new State by uniting with it certain adjoining parts of Delhi,Rajasthan and of the U.P.
- The demand of the creation of the Greater Delhi or Vishal Haryana was actively supported by several leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Moti Lal Nehru, Asaf Ali, Sir Chhotu Ram and Pt. Thakur Dass Bhargava.
- Haryana remained part of Punjab after the independence in 1947, but the demand for separate states—supported by both Hindus and Sikhs—continued, undiminished. Indeed, the movement gained momentum, reaching its fullest intensity in the early 1960s.
- Finally, with the passage of the Punjab Reorganization Act (and in accordance with the earlier recommendations of the States Reorganization Commission), Haryana was separated from Punjab in 1966 to become the 17th state of India on the recommendation of the Sardar Hukam Singh Parliamentary Committee.
- The formation of this committee was announced in the Parliament on 23 September 1965. On 23 April, 1966, acting on the recommendation of the Hukam Singh Committee, the Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice J. C. Shah, to divide and set up the boundaries of Punjab and Haryana giving consideration to the language spoken by the people.
- The commission gave its report on 31 May, 1966. According to this report the then districts of Hisar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak, and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the Tehsils of Jind (district Sangrur), Narwana (district Sangrur), Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhri were also to be included.
- The city of Chandigarh, and a Punjabi speaking area of district Rupnagar were made a union territory serving as the capital of both Punjab a nd Haryana.
- According to the Rajiv-Longowal Accord, Chandigarh was to be transferred to the state of Punjab in 1986, but the transfer was delayed and it has not been executed so far.
Population and Population density, Area, Literacy
|Percentage of total Population
|Urban Population Percentage
|Rural Population Percentage
|Child Sex Ratio
|Total Child Population (0-6 Age)
|Male Population (0-6 Age)
|Female Population (0-6 Age)
History of Haryana
- The earliest reference to Haryana found in Chahamana Inscription describing Arnoraja as carrying arms into Haritanaka that is Haryana. The territorial designation Hariala mentioned in the Skandapurana also stands for the same region.
- Excavations of various archeological sites in Haryana, like Naurangabad and Mitathal in Bhiwani, Kunal in Fatehabad, Agroha and Rakhigarhi in Hisar, Sites in Rukhi (Rohtak) and Banawali in Sirsa have evidence of pre-Harappan and Harappan culture.
- Haryana is the region where, along the banks of the River Saraswati, the Vedic Civilization began and matured.
- It was here that the Vedas were written, as the Aryans chanted their sacred Mantras. Replete with myths and legends, Haryana's 5000 year old history is steeped in glory.
- B.B. Lal was the first to bring to light archaeological evidence for the pre-Buddha history of the region with his discovery of the Painted Grey Ware at Kurukshetra, Pehowa, Amin, Panipat, etc. He has associated this pottery with the Aryans of the Mahabharata period.
- These places are mentioned in the Mahabharata as Prithudaka (Pehowa), Tilprastha (Tilput), Panprastha (Panipat) and Sonprastha (Sonipat).
- It was here that Lord Krishna preached Bhagavad-Gita at the start of the battle of Mahabharat and Ved Vyas wrote Mahabharata in Sanskrit.
- Before the Mahabharat war, a battle of ten kings took place in the Kurukshetra region in the Saraswati valley. But it was the Mahabharat War, approximately in 900 BC, which gave the region worldwide fame.
- Haryana has been the scene of many wars because of it being "The Gateway of North India". As years rolled by, successive streams of Huns, Turks and the Afghans invaded India and decisive battles were fought on this land.
- After the downfall of the Gupta empire in the middle of 6th century AD north India was again split into several kingdoms. The Huns established their supremacy over the Punjab. It was after this period that one of the greatest King of ancient India, Harshvardhan began his rule. He became the King of Thanesar (Kurukshetra) in 606 AD, and later went on to rule the most of north India.
- After Harsha death, the kingdom of his clansmen, the Pratiharas ruled over a vast region for quite a while from Harsha's adopted capital of Kannauj.
- The region was strategically important for the rulers of North India even though Thanesar was no more as central as Kannauj.
- Prithviraj Chauhan established forts in Haryana at Taraori and Hansi in the 12th century. But Muhammad Ghori has conquered these areas in the Second Battle of Tarain( 1192) after defeating him.
- After his death, the Delhi Sultanate was established, that ruled much of India for several centuries.
- The earliest reference to 'Hariana' occurs in a Sanskrit inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum, which refers to this region as The heaven on earth, indicating that it was fertile and relatively peaceful at that time.
- Palam Baoli Inscription of the time of Balban (A.D. 1280) provides its variant name as Hariyanaka.
- Firoz Shah Tughlaq established a fort at Hisar in 1354 to further fortify the region, and also constructed canals or rajwahas as they were referred to in the Indo-Persian history.
- The three famous battles of Panipat took place near the modern town of Panipat.
- The first battle took place on 21 April 1526, where Babur, the ruler of Kabul defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate, through the use of field artillery.
- In the Second battle of Panipat (November 5, 1556), Akbar's forces defeated Hem Chandra Vikramaditya also called Hemu, who belonged to Rewari in Haryana and who had won 22 battles during 1553-1556 before acceding to Delhi throne.
- Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761, between the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau of Pune. Ahmad Shah won decisively in this battle.
- After the Third Battle of Panipat, the Marathas lost courage to go to their native place but many of the families resided at various places in Haryana like Kaithal, Assaundh, Karnal, Hansi, Bhiwani etc.
- Suraj Mal was encouraged by the defeat of Marathas in the 3rd Battle of Panipat and sent his son Jawahar Singh to attack on Musavi Khan, the Mughal faujdar of Gurgaon and Rohtak. Along with areas under Musavi Khan, Suraj Mal also conquered the territories of Pataudi, Rewari and Bahadurgarh.
- These incidents, on the other hand, alarmed Najibud-daula who attacked Suraj Mal and killed him in a battle near the river Hinden on December 25, 1763. His death was a great loss to the Jats in particular and Hindus in general.
|Sahib Singh and Gurdit Singh
- The period of instability in Haryana was ended by the establishment of the rule of East India company in 1803. But the people of Haryana did not accept the new masters and revolted against the Britishers irrespective of caste and religion.
- The Sikh chiefs of Ambala, Karnal and Thanesar were the first to oppose the company rule.
- The Muslim Bhatti Rajputs of the western Haryana organized under the leadership of Zabita Khan of Sirsa and Rania and Khan Bahadur Khan of Fatehabad against Britishers.
- In November, 1809 Col. Adams was sent with a big contingent to attacked Fatehabad, Sirsa and Rania and emerged victorious in all the battles during expedition.
- The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49) was fought between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company and resulted in the Battle of Gujrat on 21 February 1849, at which the British defeated the Sikhs. As a result of this, on 2 April 1849 they declared Punjab as a new province of British India. This included most of Haryana, while the rest was ruled by the princely states of Loharu, Nabha, Jind and Patiala.
- The state of Thanesar was confiscated by Britishers in 1850 and most of Sikh chiefs reduced to the position of ordinary Jagirdars. Then the British resorted to the methods of annexation and consolidation.
- The bugle of the first war of independence in 1857 was sounded first by the people of Haryana at Ambala on 10th May, 1857, about nine hours before the outbreak at Meerut.
- Rao Tula Ram in Ahirwal, Gaffur Ali and Harsukh Rai in Palwal, Dhanu Singh in Faridabad, Nahar Singh in Ballabhgarh etc. were the important leaders of revolt in Haryana.
- Many battles were fought by the rulers of the states and by the farmers also, sometimes defeating the British army. Some most important battles were fought at Sirsa, Sonipat,
- Rohtak and Hissar. In Sirsa the famous battle of Chormar was fought.
Factors Responsible for Revolt of 1857 in Haryana
- The time honoured institutions like the village communities and panchayats were abolished by the British. Their destruction brought social instability and people felt insecure and unhappy.
- Britishers broke the backbone of the farmers by imposing heavy revenues and cesses. The poor farmers could not pay the revenue which their village headmen had agreed to pay under compulsion, they had to visit jail four to five times in a matter of few years.
- The mode of collection of land tax was extortionate as the assessment was oppressive which greatly demoralized the people and shattered the peasant's economy. This oppressive policy compelled many of the peasants to desert their lands and houses. They nursed a grudge against the new masters, the British.
- The judicial set-up was also repressive, arbitrary and expensive. There was no proper check on the judges as bribery and corruption among the judges were prevalent.
- The attack and interference in the religion (dharam) also caused some resentment.
- Christian missionaries campaigns of conversion to Christianity was perturbed hundreds of Hindus and Muslims who condemned and criticised the attitude of the Government.
- The British lapsed many estates like Rania, Kaithal, Chhachhrauli, Ladwa and Thanesar, under the Doctrine of Lapse. Which created insecurity and dissatisfaction among the chiefs.
- After 1857, the repressive policy of the British Government continued and no significant development was made in the region. The political consciousness began during the last phase of 19th century with the establishment of Indian National Congress.
- In the first session of All India Congress at Bombay in 1885, Haryana was represented by young pleaders of Ambala, Lala Murlidhar and Munshi Jawala Prashad. The Congress party activities were boosted in the region after joining of Lala Lajpat Rai, who started his law practice in Hisar.
- Like other provinces, the then Haryana witnessed a series of oppressive acts of Lord Curzon. Bal Mukund Gupta, prominent Hindi writer of Haryana compared Curzon shahi with Nadir Shahi.
- After the partition of Bengal, Swadeshi Movement gained momentum. The people were motivated to take up the cause of Swadeshi in big towns of Haryana. A Swadeshi Company was established at Ambala City under the aegis of Lala Murlidhar in which Beni Prasad and Lala Dwarka Das also took part.
- Lord Minto became the new Viceroy of India after Curzon who increased the economic hardships. Some legislation like the Punjab Limitation Act, 1904; the Transfer of Property Act, 1904 and the Punjab pre-emption Act, 1905 were passed to weaken the position of money-lenders. It generated political discontent, especially among the Hindu commercial castes.
- Lala Lajpat Rai and Sardar Ajit Singh were arrested at Lahore and deported without trial in the middle of 1907 because of their opposition to these acts. On account of the arrest of Lala Lajpat Rai, a revolutionary movement began in Haryana.
- During the first World War in 1914, India being a part of the British empire was also dragged into the war activities. The people of Haryana helped the Government by providing recruits and by contributing money and material.
- At the international level in those days, Ghaddar movement gained momentum. Kanshi Ram of Ambala district was one of the architects of the Ghadar party in San Francisco with Lala Hardayal. As per historians view, Kanshi Ram was the first Haryanvi martyr in this phase of freedom movement.
- Pt. Neki Ram Sharma of Haryana, evinced keen interest in Home Rule Agitation. After his arrest in July, 1918, during a public meeting at Birla Mandir Dharamshala in Delhi, the Home Rule Agitation petered out in Haryana.
- In 1917 the Congress Party Committee was established at Rohtak and Chaudhary Chhotu Ram and Babu Shyam Lal were appointed as its president and secretary, respectively. In 1918 Congress session of Delhi, Pt. Neki Ram Sharma and Chaudhary Peeru Singh and Lala Daulat Ram participated in this session from Haryana.
- On March 30, 1919, Mahatma Gandhi called for a hartal all over India. The whole of the Haryana State responded to the call and hartals were observed in Karnal, Rewari, Hodal, Rohtak, Sonipat etc.
- The Punjab atrocities, discontentment over the Khilafat issue and the report of the Disorders Inquiry Committee on 26th May, 1920 had completely shaken the faith of the people. In Haryana, the impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement was very intensive and it had succeeded in creating an atmosphere of hostility against the Government. The movement was very intense in Ambala district of Haryana.
- The Congress had not participated in the general elections of 1920. The dissidents, Chhotu Ram and Lal Chand, however, contested the elections and won. This resulted the emergence of Swarajists Party on sound footing. A branch of Swarajist Party was formed at Rohtak under the leadership of Sri Ram Sharma, whose local paper, the Haryana Tilak came to be regarded as the organ of the Congress in this region.
- On 30th October, 1928, Lala Lajpat Rai was assaulted by the police when he was leading a peaceful procession against all white men ‘’Simon Commission’’, which resulted in his death. His death created a widespread resentment throughout the country including Haryana region. Pt. Neki Ram Sharma held the commission responsible for Lala Lajpat Rai's death.
- During this time, branches of Naujawan Bharat Sabha were also set up in Haryana at Ambala, Karnal, Rohtak and Hissar. Its activities in Haryana were limited and could not become as significant as it was in Punjab. Its leaders in Haryana were more or less pro-Congress.
- In Haryana on 8th and 9th March, 1929, Punjab Provincial Political Conference was held at Rohtak which was attended by Moti Lal Nehru and Jawaharlal Nehru.Dr. Satyapal presided over the session. In the conference significant resolutions on Nehru Report and remission of land revenue were passed.
- At Lahore session of Indian National Congress in 1929, for the first time the resolution of Complete Independence was passed. In Haryana there was bonfire of foreign cloth took place at Sonipat, people went about in Prabhat pheris in the morning singing national and patriotic songs and poems. The mutiny week was also celebrated in the region.
- During the beginning of 1940 when the Second World War was in full swing, a Ahir company of Hyderabad Regiment raised a armed revolt under Zahir Khan. All these army men belonged to Haryana and they were under the spell of Arya Samaj and Congress party which was spearheading in the National Movement.
- The British Government arrested Ch. Devi Lal, Ram Dayal, Hukum Chand, Madan Gopal, Sahib Ram, Lekh Ram, Jan Muhammad and Pt. Pat Ram Verma for raising their voice in favour of Quit India Movement and other freedom activities. Chaudhary Devi Lal (former Deputy Prime Minister) and Shri Mool Chand Jain are known as legendary freedom fighters from Haryana.
- The people of Haryana played a notable role by joining themselves as members of Indian National Army, raised by Hon'ble Subhash Chandra Bose. Its main object was to wage war against the British. They believed in organized revolt. The INA was formed with the battle cry "Dilli chalo".
Deen Bandhu Sir Chhotu Ram
- Chaudhary Chhotu Ram was one of the most prominent politician in Punjab before independence. He was an ideologue of the Jat peasantry and a champion of its interests.
- He was born on 24 November 1881 in Garhi Sampla in Rohtak district of Haryana and associated with organizations that represented peasant interests like the Zamindar League and the Unionist Party after resigning from the Congress in 1920.
- He founded the Unionist Party with Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan, which represented a coalition between Hindu farmers in the eastern part of the province and feudal Muslim landlords in the west.
- He held the revenue portfolio in the then Unionist Party Government in Punjab and worked a lot to improve the economic status of the peasants through numerous legislative measures which are often termed as Golden Laws.
- He was a visionary man and most probably the first leader who mooted the idea of Green Revolution. The Bhakra-Nangal dam project was also signed by him in November 1944 with the king of Bilaspur but the project got delayed and finally completed in 1963.
- He also led a massive recruitment drive for the army during World War I in modern Haryana region and during World War II across pre-partition Punjab.
- His support of the British war effort (during world war II) is often seen as a controversial step as the Congress had given a call not to provide any help to the British. He actively promoted recruitment of Jats in particular and other farming class youth in general in the army as he felt that it was economically beneficial to these communities.
- The recurring theme of his campaigns was India's independence after the war. He said: "My hope is that after this war Hindustan will be free. And it will be free in a real sense".
- He was in opposition to the concept of Pakistan and formed a separate group of thirteen members in the Punjab Assembly when most Muslim Unionists joined the Muslim League. His death brought about the demise of the Unionist Party.
- On October 9, 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi unveiled his 64-foot-tall statue at Sampla.
- Religious composition of Haryana: Hindus (87.46%), Muslims (7.03%), Sikhs (4.91%), Jain (0.21%), Christian (0.20%) and Buddhist (0.03%).
- In the state Sirsa district has the largest Sikh population, Mewat/Nuh district has largest Muslim population and Ambala district has largest Christian population.
- Hindi was the official language of Haryana till 2010 and it is spoken by the majority of the population (87.31%). Accepting a long-pending demand, the Haryana government notified Punjabi in 2010 as the state's second language. The Haryana Official Language Act, 1969 gave official status to English Language.
- Haryana has 70% rural population who primarily speak Haryanvi dialect of Hindi, as well as other related dialects, such as Bagri and Mewati.
- Haryana is a landlocked state in the North Western region of India and consists 1.34% of the total geographical area of country.
- It is surrounded by Himachal Pradesh from North, Rajasthan from South, U.P and Delhi from East and Punjab from North West.
- Area wise the largest district of Haryana is Sirsa while Faridabad is the smallest district.
- Haryana has four main geographical features:
- The Yamuna-Ghaggar plain forming the largest part of the state.
- Shivalik Hills to the northeast in foothills of Himalayas.
- Semi-desert dry sandy plain to the south-west.
- Aravali Hills in the south.
|Important Rivers and Dams of Haryana
|Ottu Barrage in Sirsa
|Barrage at Jalbehra in Kurukshetra
|Many seasonal streams
|Hamidpur Check Dam
|Season Aravali Streams
|Norana Check Dam, Rajasthan
|Bandarpunch Glacier, Uttarakhand
|Somb, Thapana, Sahibi
|Sota, Kotkasim, Indori
- Western and Eastern Yamuna Canal is the oldest canal of the state which emerges from the Tajewala barrage. These branches feed water, for irrigation purposes, to the land areas of Karnal, Panipat, Sonepat, Jind and Rohtak districts.
- Gurgaon Canal has been drawn at the Okhla barrage from the Yamuna.
- Bhakra Canal has been drawn form Sutlej river near Nangal. The fields of Sirsa, Rohtak and Hissar districts are supplied water through this canal.
- Bhiwani Canal is a small canal, drawn out of Bhakra Canal it passed through district of Bhiwani.
- Jawahar Lal Canal has also been drawn from Bhakra Canal and passes through Mahendragarh.
Sutlej – Yamuna Link (SYL) Canal Controversy
- SYL is a 214 km long water canal proposed to connect the Sutlej River in Punjab to Yamuna in Haryana at Palla village, near Delhi. Its 122 kilometre stretch falls under Punjab and the remaining 92 kilometre is in Haryana.
- A sum of Rs. 100 crore has been announced by Haryana government for completion of SYL in budget 2018-19.
- Besides transfer of water for irrigation needs, two hydel power projects are also proposed on SYL, it can also be used for shipping purposes.
- It comes under the Bhakra- Beas Management Board (BBMB) which was constituted under a central legislation i.e. the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966.
- Construction of SYL was started in 1984 and a major part of the canal was completed in the Punjab territory in 1990s itself, only a small part is left to be completed.
- Controversies about the SYL Canal can be traced back to the mid-1960s, started after the reorganisation of Punjab. When the state was bifurcated, the sharing of the river water also became a bone of contention.
- According to 1976 deal, centre allocated 3.5 MAF of water to Haryana, 3.5 MAF to Punjab, 8 MAF to Rajasthan and 0.2 MAF to Delhi. Due to the opposition of Punjab to the deal, Haryana has approached the Supreme Court in 1979.
- In 1980’s, Indira Gandhi intervened and as a result Punjab government withdrew its suit from the Supreme Court. But Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD) has continued to oppose the canal. The foundation stone of the canal was laid on April 8, 1982, by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi at Kapoori village, in Patiala.
- At that time militancy in Punjab was at its peak and the labourers working there were attacked, as a result the construction of SYL was halted.
- Rajiv - Longowal Accord of 1985 i.e the Punjab Accord tried to solve the issue but with little success. Justice V Balakrishna Eradi tribunal was also set up to specify the quantum of Ravi-Baes waters to be shared among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
- In 2002, the Supreme Court directed the Punjab government to continue digging for the project. In 2004, Punjab state passed the ‘’Punjab Termination of Agreement Act’’, to de-notify the land acquired for the project. It annuls the 1981 Indira Gandhi award and subsequent agreements relating to the distribution of Ravi- Beas waters.
- The validity of the law was questioned, as it was in direct confrontation to a Supreme Court judgement.
- More recently in 2016, the Supreme Court took up the matter for hearing. At the same time Punjab legislature passed another bill i.e the Punjab Sutlej-Yamuna Link Canal (Rehabilitation and Re-vesting of Proprietary Rights), to restore the land acquired for the canal back to the farmers.
- The Supreme Court has ordered status quo on the bill but Punjab government is defending it by citing that under Article 143, the Supreme Court has only advisory functions, and hence cannot pass an assumptive interim order.
- Haryana is extremely hot in summer at around 45 °C (113 °F) and mild in winter. The hottest months are May and June and the coldest are December and January.
- The district of Karnal, Ambala and a portion of Kurukshetra district lying under the climatic type Cwa, Sirsa and Hisar district has got climatic type Bwh. The rest of the State belongs to the climatic type Bsh.
- The year is divided into four seasons. The winter season from November to March is followed by summer season from April to June. The period from July to middle of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season and the period from the latter half of September to October forms the post-monsoon period.
- Winter prevails over the entire State during the period from November to March and is generally very unpleasant due to biting cold. In this season a series of western disturbances affect the climate of the State. In the summer months from April to June, weather is very dry and uncomfortable.
- The maximum rainfall is 216 cms and the minimum rainfall ranges from 25 to 38 cms.
- Soil is formed almost entirely of alluvium, the state is situated towards the depressions of the rivers Ganges and Indus.
- It is a broad level plain standing nearly on the watershed between the basins of the two rivers. It is a vast ground of moist land. In the whole of the region except the flood plains of the Yamuna and the Ghaggar, the alluvium is of the old type containing sand, clay, silt and hard calcareous concentrations about the size of nuts known as 'Kankars'.
- In the Khaddar the deposits of the alluvium are of the recent type. They consist of coarse sand and some silt, regularly deposited by the rivers and small mountain streams of the Indo-Gangetic watershed.
- In the south-western part, a great deal of wind-blown sand has been piled up in the form of sand dunes. These dunes are sometimes many metres high. The alluvium is covered by sand, making the region as arid and unproductive as a desert.
Important Lakes of Haryana
- Badkhal Lake is situated near Faridabad in Haryana, about 32 kilometers from Delhi. Fringed by the hills of the Aravalli Range it is a man-made embankment. Owing to unchecked mining in neighbouring areas, the lake has now totally dried up. Close to Badkhal Lake, is the Peacock Lake, which is another picturesque spot. It is an important biodiversity area contiguous to Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary within the Northern Aravalli leopard wildlife corridor.
- Brahma Sarovar Lake is one of Asia's largest man-made pond. It is 3600 ft long, 1500 ft broad and 45 ft deep. Brahma stands for Lord Brahma, the creator of universe in Hinduism, and Sarovar in Hindi means 'pond'. The pond is named such because myths say that Lord Brahma created the universe from the land of Kurukshetra, after performing a huge yagya. A giant black stone chariot of Lord Krishna and Arjuna is located in its premises. The ghats of the sarovar are named after the most prominent characters of the Mahabharata.
- Karna Lake is a manmade lake in Karnal city of Haryana.
- Sannihit Sarovar, believed to be the permanent abode of Lord Vishnu, is situated at a distance of 3 kms from Kurukshetra on Pehowa Road. It is supposed that entire range of Tirthas assembles here on the day of Amavasya and as per the legends, if a man performs Shradhs at the time of solar eclipse and takes bath in this tank, he acquires the fruit of 1000 Ashwamedh sacrifices. Sikh Gurus too have visited this holy place from time to time.
- Surajkund Lake also known as 'Lake of the Sun', is an artificial Kund built in the backdrop of the Aravalli hills near Faridabad. It is said to have been built by the Suraj Pal, King of Tomar dynasty in the 10th century.
- Tilyar Lake, situated 42 Kms from Delhi, is located in Rohtak District of Haryana.
- Blue Bird Lake is a resident and endangered migratory fowl wetland habitat, lake and exercise area in the Hisar city of Haryana. It is close to Deer Park and Shatavar Vatika Herbal Park of Hisar.
Flora and Fauna of State
- Haryana is rich in various kinds of flora. In the state there is a general type of flora but some pockets of the region give a special types of herbs and bushes. There are hardly any hilly tracts in Haryana except a few in Panchkula district-its sub-montane area and the range of Aravalli chain in Gurgaon, Rewari, Faridabad and Mahendragarh districts.
- In Panchkula, the hilly areas are generally devoid of vegetation other than rough scrub, and the low bleak hills are of little use except as grazing grounds. The tract around Kalesar and Morni, however, is more valuable.
- Formed almost entirely of alluvium, the state is situated towards the depressions of the rivers, Ganges and Indus.It is vast ground of moist land. So, under the situations, flora also differs.
- Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon, a carpet of grass covers the hills. Mulberry, eucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here.
- Forest cover in the state is near 3.6% of the total geographical area of Haryana while total forest and tree Cover is 6.79%. Forest Cover in the state in 2017 was 1588 km2 and the Tree Cover in the state was 1415 km2. In 2016-17, 18,412 hectares were brought under tree cover by planting 14.1 million seedlings.
- Panchkula district has maximum forest cover while Palwal district has minimum forest cover.
- In olden times, lions and tigers were not uncommon in the state. The Nardak area of the then Karnal district was once a favourite spot of the Mughal emperors for hunting lions and tigers.These species have completely disappeared now.
- The species of fauna found in the state of Haryana include black buck, nilgai, panther, fox, mongoose, jackal and wild dog. Apart from this more than 450 species of birds are also found.
- Haryana has two national parks, eight wildlife sanctuaries, two wildlife conservation areas, five animal and bird breeding centers, one deer park and three zoos, all of which are managed by the Haryana Forest Department of the Government of Haryana.
National parks of Haryana
The Forests Department of Haryana maintains 2 National parks:
- Sultanpur National Park (142.52 hectares), 25 km from Gurugram, is a bird paradise for bird watchers. It is famous for its migratory as well as resident birds. Migratory species reach here after covering incredible distance, since their home land in Europe, Siberia and Central Asia becomes uninhabitable due to cold temperature, snow covered ground and frozen lakes. Migratory birds start arriving in the park in September.
- Kalesar National Park (4682.32 hectares), 15 km from Yamunanagar, has got lot of significance in terms of biodiversity and ecological stability in this part of the country. In terms of biodiversity, it is store house of numerous medicinal plants. It houses many threatened animals like Leopard, Ghoral, Barking deer, Sambar, Chital, Python, King Cobra, Monitor lizard etc. Occasionally, Tigers and Elephants visit this park from Rajaji National Park situated in Uttarakhand.
Wildlife Sanctuaries of Haryana
The Forests Department, Haryana of the Government of Haryana maintains the following Wildlife Sanctuaries:
- Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary, Jhajjar
- Khaparwas Wildlife Sanctuary, Jhajjar
- Nahar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rewari
- Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary, Kurukshetra
- Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary, Yamunanagar
- Abubshahar Wildlife Sanctuary, Sirsa
- Khol Hi-Raitan Wildlife Sanctuary, Panchkula
- Bir Shikargah Wildlife Sanctuary, Panchkula
Animal & Bird Breeding Centers of Haryana
The Forests Department of Haryana runs the following breeding centres in the state:
- Chinkara Breeding Centre, Kairu, Bhiwani
- Crocodile Breeding Centre, Bhor Saidan, Kurukshetra
- Peacock & Chinkara Breeding Centre, Jhabua, Rewari
- Pheasant Breeding Centre, Morni, Panchkula
- Vulture Conservation and Breeding Centre, Pinjore
- Saraswati Conservation Reserve, Kaithal
- Bir Bara Ban Conservation Reserve, Jind
*The Forests Department of the Government of Haryana runs Deer Park located next to Hisar Airport.
- Surajkund International Crafts Mela
- It is celebrated at, Surajkund, District Faridabad
- The Mela is organized by the Surajkund Mela Authority & Haryana Tourism in collaboration with Union Ministries of Tourism, Textiles, Culture and External Affairs.
- A large number of renowned national and international folk artistes and cultural groups present day performances at both the Chaupals, the open-air theatres, located in the Mela premises. In 2013, the fair was upgraded to an international level and in 2015, a record number of 20 countries participated in the Mela.
- For the 33rd Surajkund International Crafts Mela-2019, the state of Maharashtra has been chosen to be the Theme State. Thailand is the Partner Nation Country for the Year 2019.
- Gopal-Mochan Fair
- In Ambala, the most famous fair is held at Gopal-Mochan near Bilaspur in Jagadhri tehsil. There is a sacred tank of the same name in the place.
- Masani Fair
- Haryana's most famous fair is held in honour of the goddess of smallpox, Masani whose temple is in Gurgaon village.
- Gugga Naumi
- This is a religious festival, celebrated all over Haryana. It is connected with snake-worship and observed in August-September.
- It is a festival that dedicated to goddess of abundance i.e. Gauri. Celebrated every year in Chet or March month, this festival is specially meant for young girls who pray for good husbands. In this festival people take out processions carrying the idol of Gangore.
- Lohri is celebrated in the state of Haryana just before the day of Makar Sankranti. For the community of Punjabis the festival of Lohri is a very special festival.
- The festival of Baisakhi is a very important one for the Punjabis in the state of Haryana and is celebrated with joyous music and dancing.
- It falls every year on 13th April and once in 36 years it falls on 14th April. It was on this particular day that the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh, founded the Khalsa in the year 1699.
- This festival is celebrated on Sawan Sudi. It is celebrated to welcome the season of monsoon. After the first showers of rainy season, a small insect called Teej in the state of Haryana comes out from the earth’s soil.
- Pinjore Heritage Festival
- It takes place at Pinjore, a small town located at a distance of 20 kilometers from Chandigarh. It is home of some of the best terraced gardens in the country. These gardens were planned by Fidai Khan during the reign of Jahangir.
Arts and crafts of Haryana
- Art and craft of Haryana mainly covers the range of pottery, embroidery and weaving. Colourful Phulkari dupatta of Haryana is famous in India and abroad.
- Art and craft of Haryana also include sculpture and murals both of Persian and Mughal style. Woven furniture, artistic sheet metal work, wooden bead making, zari & tilla jutti (leather footwear), lace work, bone carving, wood carving are some of the artistic craft that Haryana is known for.
- Panipat in Haryana is famous for its handloom tradition, especially rugs and upholstery fabric that is the reason why it is known as a major textile town in India.
- Haryana is famous for two types of woven furniture Mudhas (round stools) and chairs made of sarkanda (a reed) from Farukh Nagar and Pidhis from Sonipat which are essentially wooden stools with seat woven in cotton threads or sutli.
- One of the interesting items made at Jhajjar is pitcher made from clay. Interestingly, the clay gives a sweet taste to the water stored in the pitcher.
- Dhamal is a dance form, whose origin goes back to the days of the Mahabharata. The Dhamal dance is especially popular in the areas around Gurgaon, inhabited by Ahirs. In the beginning of the dance, the player gives the first long note, then Dhol, Tasha, Nagara, pick up the beat and the dance begins. Some of the dancers carry large Daphs in their hands. These are edged with frills of brightly coloured fabric, others carry sticks ('Shuntis') of medium length, wrapped in tinsel and tasseled at both ends.
- Daph is another form of seasonal dance of farmers depicting the joyful emotions on a good harvest and advent of Spring. It is a sort of community dance. The "Daph", the one sided drum and the sound of the ornaments worn by the women offer the music.
- Phag dance done basically in the lunar month of Phalgun seeks to celebrate the colourful festival of Holi. The dancers come together to the sound of 'Tasha', 'Nagara' and 'Dhol'. The men come running & singing the traditional songs of 'Phalgun', followed by women carrying 'Koraras', the knotted lengths of cloths. They run about the men hitting with the 'Koraras' while men defend themselves as best as they can with 'Shuntis'.
- Ghoomar is marked by circular movements of the dancers, Ghoomar is generally performed by the girls of the areas bordering Rajasthan. The dancers form a circle, and move about clapping and singing, while tempo of the dance is accelerated. The accompanying songs are full of satire and humour and refer to contemporary events, while the dancers twirl around in pairs.
- Jhumar dance is named after an ornament called as "Jhumar" commonly worn on forehead by young married women is exclusively danced by women. It is otherwise known as 'Hariyanvi Gidda'. Dressed in colourful costumes, the ladies dance in gay abandon singing and clapping with the beats of 'dholak' and 'thali' while gracefully moving in a circle.
- Loor is performed by girls during the month of 'Phalguna' (pring), and is so named because the word 'Loor' means girl in the Bangar area of Haryana. Performed during the Holi festival, this dance marks the spring season and the sowing of the Rabi crops. The song is generally in the form of questions and answers.
- Gugga dance is performed by Gugga (a saint) devotees, they dance and sing around his grave to show their devotion. The Gugga is exclusively a male dance, performed in procession taken out in memory of saint Gugga.
- Haryana is a state of rich musical tradition and even some places have even been named after ragas, for example Charkhi Dadri district has many villages named as Todi, Asaveri, Jaisri, Malakoshna, Hindola, Bhairavi etc.
- Mainly two main forms of music exist here i.e. Classical Folk Music and Desi Folk Music. They take the form of a verse and pangs of parting of lovers, valor and bravery, harvest and happiness. The folk music of Haryana has been spread by the Bhats, Saangis and Jogis.
- The desi Haryanvi music is used for celebrating community bonhomie to sing seasonal songs, ballads, ceremonial songs and related religious legendary tales such as Puran Bhagat. Ahirs also use melodic Raag Pilu on a scale using seven semitones.
- Kissa folklores of bravery and love such as Nihal De Sultan, Leelo- Chaman, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Jai Singh etc. are some of the most popular folklores. Ragini are folk theatrical performance of Haryana. This form of theater were popularised by Lakhmi Chand and Mehar Singh.
Many traditional instruments like Sarangi, Harmonium, Chimta, Dhadd, Dholak, Manjeera, Khartal, Damaru, Duggi, Daf, Bansuri, Been, Ghungroo, Dhak, Gharha(by adding rubber cover on top of the pitcher), Thali (beaten with a stick to make music) and Shankha are used to make music here.
- Haryana has a flourishing film Industry . When Chandrawal was released in March 1984, it created a stir in the film industry.
- Apart from this Laddo, Chandro, Lal Rang are other famous films of Haryana.
- There is the saying famous in Haryana, Desaan main des Haryana, jit dudh dahi ka khaana, which means "Among places is Haryana, where the staple food is milk and yoghurt "
- The home made butter is popularly known as nooni or tindi in the state. Bajra Ki Khichdi is a famous delicacy, which is prepared with millet porridge and eaten with Kadi or Ghee.
- The desserts contain Gajar ka Halwa, Kheer and Rabri made from wheat flour and buttermilk.
- About 70% of Haryana residents are engaged in agriculture. Wheat and rice are the major crops. Haryana is self-sufficient in food production and the second largest contributor to India's central pool of food grains.
- Haryana contributed significantly to the Green Revolution in India in the 1970s that made the country self-sufficient in food production.
- The state has also significantly contributed to the field of agricultural education in the country. Asia's one of the biggest agricultural University - Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University is located at Hisar , which has already made a significant contribution in ushering 'Green Revolution'.
- Dairy farming is also an essential part of the rural economy. Haryana has a livestock population of 98.97 lakh. Milk and milk products form an essential part of the local diet. Haryana, with 660 grams of availability of milk per capita per day, ranks at number two in the country as against the national average of 232 grams.
- There is a vast network of milk societies that support the dairy industry.
- The National Dairy Research Institute at Karnal, and the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes at Hisar are instrumental in development of new breeds of cattle and propagation of these breeds through embryo transfer technology.
- The Murrah breed of water buffalo from Haryana is world-famous for its milk production and termed as 'Black Gold'.
- The Gurgaon city is emerging as one of the major hub for the Information Technology and Automobile industry. India now has over 50% market share in the world’s IT outsourcing industry, and most of that work happens from Gurgaon. The total global and domestic outsourcing market opportunity for India is expected to grow three-fold from $500bn in 2008 to $1.5tn by 2020, according to India Brand Equity, a foundation set up by the government.
- Two of the biggest automobile and two wheeler manufacturer Maruti udyog and Hero are in Gurgaon. Haryana is a preferred destination for auto majors and auto-component manufacturers. The state is host to many large automotive players. The state produces two-thirds of passenger cars, 50 percent of tractors, 60 percent of motorcycles and 50 per cent of the refrigerators manufactured in the country. Automobiles and auto component exports from Haryana were around US$ 1.39 billion in FY18.
- The Panipat Refinery (IOCL) situated at Panipat is the second largest refinery in south Asia.
- There are numerous manufacturing companies in the region. These include Hindustan National Glass, Maruti Udyog Limited, Escorts Group, Hero Moto Corp, Alcatel, Sony, Whirlpool India, Bharti Telecom, Liberty Shoes etc. In addition there are more than 80,000 small-scale industrial units in the state which cumulatively bring in a substantial income for the state and its people.
- Yamunanagar district has a paper mill BILT.
- Faridabad is another big industrial part of Haryana. It is home to hundreds of large scale companies like Orient fans (C.K.Birla Group), JCB India Limited, Nirigemes, Agri
- Machinery Group (Escorts Group), Yamaha Motor India Pvt. Ltd.
Sports in Haryana
- Haryana is the leading state in sports as well. It's players like Sushil Kumar has won the two successive Olympic medals in 2008 ( Bronze Medal) and 2012 (Silver Medal).
- Haryana women player Sakshi Malik has won Bronze Medal in 2016 Olympic in freestyle wrestling and she has become the first woman in India who has won Olympic medal in wrestling.
- Haryana Sports Policy and Rewards played a major role in the upliftment of sports in the state.
- According to new sports policy, substantially increased award money is being given to national and international Players.
- Haryana has set up a number of tourist complexes, motels and camping sites to promote tourism. Haryana has one of the most successful tourist development programs led by Haryana Tourism department. The tourist complexes are named after Birds found in Haryana. Some of these places have dormitories and all of them have restaurants. Hotel Rajhans (Surajkund) is on the Delhi Agra highway, Karna Lake (Karnal), Skylark, Parakeet and Kingfisher (Ambala) are on Delhi-Chandigarh highway. Yadavindra Gardens at Pinjore, on the Chandigarh Shimla road are a must see.
- Kurukshetra is a great pilgrimage for Hindus and tourists from all over visit the venue of Mahabharat war and the birthplace of the Bhagavad Gita. Building on its, historical and cultural traditions, it has developed in to a modern city having the Brahma Sarovar, Sri Krishna Museum and the Science Museum (Panorama).
- The Delhi-Alwar highway boasts of a unique hilly attraction Sohna, in Gurgaon district. Standing on the Aravali Hills, Sohna looks out at a wide panoramic view of the plains below it.
- Panchkula district has the Morni Hills - the only hill station of Haryana, is a charming and peaceful place to rest and savor the nature.
- Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hisar
- National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal
- National Brain Research Centre, Gurgaon
- Directorate Of Wheat Research, Karnal
- National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal
Haryana Government Schemes
- Apni Beti Apna Dhan
- Ladli Scheme
- State Level Awards for Improvement in Sex Ratio to the districts, Haryana
- Ch. Devi Lal. Rashtriya Uttan Aivam Parivar Kalyan Yojna “Devi Rupak”
- Mukhya Mantri Vivah Shagun Yojna
- Housing scheme for Scheduled Castes and Denotified Tribes
- Dr. Ambedkar Medhavi Chhattar Sansodhit Yojna
- Financial Assistance for Higher Competitive entrance examinations to SC/BC candidates through private institutions.
- Creation of Employment Generation Opportunities by setting up Employment Oriented Institutes/Training Programmes.
- Scheme of Hostels For Other Backward Classes (OBCs) Boys And Girls
Issues and Challenges
- Haryana has the worst child sex ratio( 834) and sex ratio( 879) according to census 2011.
- Crime rate against women is very high in the state. The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data for 2016 has indicated that Haryana has acquired the top spot among all states in terms of gang rapes.
- Due to high rate of foeticide and resultant lack of females in Haryana there is widespread practice of trafficking women from the poorer region of India.
- Though Haryana is leading agricultural state in India , there are emerging challenges , like water table has gone down drastically, due to excessive and irrational fertilizer use and agriculture has almost become non-profitable due to high input cost.
- The groundwater level in Haryana, a major paddy producer in the country, has dropped by more than 50% in the past four decades. According to official information, in 1974 the groundwater was available at 9.19 metre (m) and in 2016, it has gone down to 18.66m, recording a decline up to 9.47m. In fact, this is the state’s average, as in many districts the groundwater level has gone down up to 46m.
- First mobile court of Haryana (2007): Mewat/Nuh
- India’s first high-tech Anganwadi: Hasanpur (Sonipat)
- Haryana Backward Classes Commission: Established on 7 September 1990
- First Chairman of Haryana Backward Classes Commission: Justice Gurnam Singh
- Haryana Institute of Rural Development: Nilokheri (Karnal)
- Potato Technology Training Centre: Nilokheri (Karnal)
- Gandhi of Haryana: Mulchand Jain (Gohana, Sonipat)
- First Gram Secretariat of Haryana: Haibatpur (Jind)
- Kalanidhi Magazine (1965): Kurukshetra University
- Sandalwood of Haryana: Khejri (Jati)
- Gaya city of Haryana: Pehowa (Kurukshetra)
- Harsh Ka Tila: Thanesar (Kurukshetra)
- Anjana Mata Ka Tila: Kaithal
- First Agro Mall of Haryana: Rohtak
- Shree Baba Tara Ji: Sirsa
- Dadi Sati Mandir: Kumhariya (Sirsa)
- Dera Jagmalwali (Sirsa): Sant GurBaksh Singh
- Namdhari Dera: Jiwan Nagar, Sirsa
- Sardar Singh: Hockey player (Rania, Sirsa)
- Rania ka Kila: Bhairon Singh
- War Heroes Memorial Stadium: Ambala
- Abu Ali Qalandar Tomb: Panipat
- Longest flyover of Haryana: Panipat
- Idea of ‘Selfie with Daughter’: Sunil Jangal (Bibipur, Jind)
- Lake mentioned in “Baburnama”: Kotla lake (Nuh)
- Chitta Temple: Yamunanagar
- Hemu: Kutubpur (Rewari)
- London of Ahirwal: Rewari
- Rani ki Dyodhi: Rewari
- Carnor Darwaza: Rewari
- Rampura Mahal: Rewari
- History of Rewari: "Abhir Kuldeepika’"
- Largest Cloth Market of Northern India: Shori Market (Rohtak)
- Tmb of Pranpir Badshah: Hisar
- St. Thomas Church: Hisar
- St. James Church: Karnal
- Mausam Khatri (Wrestler): Panchi Village (Sonipat)
- Fauji Mehar Singh: Barona village (Sonipat)
- First Cotton Mill of Haryana: Fatehabad (1963)
- Castle of Ibrahim Ali Khan: Designed by Henz
- Babatpur village (Gurugram): Selected under Digital India Programme
- Baba Gaibi Sahib Temple: Narwana (Jind)
- Mini Haridwar of Haryana: Pandu-Pindara (Jind)
- Baba Jeet Giri Temple: Kakrod (Jind)
- Uchana: Established by Dahad Singh Sheokand
- Niracha Dham: Beri (Jhajjar)
- Archaeological Museum: Jhajjar
- Nabh Chhor: Evening newspaper published from Hisar
- Postal service in Ambala: Launched by Lord Canning in 1860
- Mata Parkash Kaur Welfare Centre for Persons with Speech & Hearing Impairment: Karnal
- St. James Church Tower (1806): Karnal
- Nirmal Kutiya: Karnal
- Gandhi Memorial Hall: Karnal
- First One Stop Centre for distress women: Karnal
- First Post Office Passport Centre of Haryana: Karnal
- Google boy: Kautilya Pandit
- Maharishi Balmiki Sanskrit University: Mundri (Kaithal)
- Peer Naubahar: Guhla (Kaithal)
- Bhai Uday Singh: Last Emperor of Kaithal
- Kos Minars: Sher Shah Suri
- Devi Temple of Panipat: Built by Marathas
- Gandhi Museum: Palwal
- Tomb of Roshan Chirag: Palwal
- Shaheed Minar: Hathin (Palwal)
- Odh Tribe: Hodal
- Sunil Lanba: Amarpur village (Palwal)