Day 34

Question 1: What do you understand by stone age? Discuss important phases of it. What modern human can learn from the stone age people? (150 Words)

Question 2: What is the chalcolithic culture/settlement. Discuss the limitation of the chalcolithic culture. (150 Words)

17 Dec 2022 | GS Paper 1 | History

Approach / Explaination / Answer

Answer 1


  • Introduce stone age.
  • Discuss the important phases of the stone age and also mention what modern human can learn from the stone age people?
  • Conclude suitably.


The Stone Age refers to the time period when stone was used to make tools. This age is further divided into three periods:

  • Paleolithic age (old stone age): Period – 500,000 – 10,000 BCE
  • Mesolithic age (mid-stone age): Period – 10,000 – 6000 BCE
  • Neolithic age (new stone age): Period – 6000 – 1000 BCE


The Important phase of stone age are explained as:

Phases in the Palaeolithic Age

  • The Palaeolithic Age in India is divided into three phases according to the nature of the stone tools used by the people.
  • The first phase is called Early or Lower Palaeolithic (500,000 B.C. and 50,000 B.C), the second Middle Palaeolithic (50,000 B.C. and 40,000 B.C.) and the third Upper Palaeolithic (40,000 B.C. and 10,000 B.C.).
  • Its characteristic feature is the use of hand-axes, cleavers and choppers, flakes and the principal tools are varieties of blades, points, borers and scrapers made of flakes.

The Mesolithic Age: Hunters and Herders

  • It intervened as a transitional phase between the Palaeolithic Age and the Neolithic or New Stone Age. The mesolithic people lived on hunting, fishing and food gathering, at a later stage they also domesticated animals.

The Neolithic Age: Food Producers

  • The people of this age used tools and implements of polished stone, used stone axes. An important site is that of Burzahom, which means 'the place of birch' and is situated 16 km north- west of Srinagar. The neolithic people lived there on a lake-side in pits, and probably had a hunting and fishing economy. They seem to have been acquainted with agriculture.

Things which modern human can learn from the stone age people:

  • Respecting nature and considering every living being with equal values. Need to develop eco-centric attitude towards nature.
  • Adopting sustainable lifestyle for healthy living and prosperity for future generations as well.
  • Preserve their art, culture, structure and other tangible heritage.


The people of the stone Age suffered from one great limitation. Since they had to depend almost entirely on tools and weapons made of stone, they could not find settlements far away from the hilly areas. They could settle down only on the slopes of the hills, in rock shelters and hilly river valleys. Further, even with great effort, they could not produce more than what they needed for their bare subsistence.

Answer 2


  • Introduce the chalcolithic culture.
  • Discuss the specification of the chalcolithic culture and also discuss its limitations.
  • Conclude suitably.


  • The end of the Neolithic period saw the use of metals. Several cultures were based on the use of copper and stone implements.
  • Such a culture is called Chalcolithic and as the name indicates, during the Chalcolithic (Chalco = Copper and Lithic = Stone) period, both metal and stone were utilized for the manufacture of the equipment in day-to-day life.
  • The Chalcolithic cultures followed the Bronze Age Harappa culture. It spanned around 2500 BC to 700 BC.


Its salient features were: The Chalcolithic culture of a region was defined according to certain salient features seen in ceramics and other cultural equipment like copper artefacts, beads of semi-precious stones, stone tools and terracotta figurines.

  • Rural Settlements: The people were mostly rural and lived near hills and rivers. The people of Chalcolithic Age survived on hunting, fishing, and farming
  • Regional Differences: Regional differences in social structure, cereals and pottery become visible like habitats and burial practices were ranging from 20 to 5 hectare.
  • Migration: Migration and diffusion of population groups were often cited as causes for the origin of different cultures within the Chalcolithic period.
  • First Metal Age of India: Since this was the first metal age, copper and its alloy bronze which melt at low temperature (as compared to iron) were used for the manufacture of various objects during this period.
    • They were aware of art of copper smelting and making wheal turned red and black pots.
  • Art and Craft: The specialty of the Chalcolithic culture was wheel made pottery mostly of red and orange colour.
    • Different types of pottery were used by the people of the Chalcolithic phase. The Black-and-red pottery among them was quite common. The Ochre-Coloured Pottery (OCP) was also in use.
  • Agicultural production: They were familiar with production of rice, wheat, cotton (on blach soil of deccan).
    • They used to domesticate animals and practice jhum cultivation

Limitation of the chalcolithic culture:

  • They were using cattle only for slaughter for food & not for milk & Agriculture.
    • They Couldn’t make full use of animals.
  • They live in Black cotton soil area but not practiced agriculture on intensive scale.
  • Practice unsustainable slash-burn cultivation.
  • Large burial of children in Maharashtra shows high infant mortality rate and low medical and sanitation knowledge.
  • The stone-copper culture was a rural culture unlike urbanized Harrapan culture (IVC).
  • People of chalcolithic culture did not know bronze making and also were not aware of writing.
  • People of chalcolithic culture were not benefited from advanced IVC.


In southern India, the chalcolithic culture was transformed into megalithic culture using iron and in eastern India, this culture followed by the Iron age and make people agriculturist.