World Biofuel Day
The World Biofuel Day is observed every year on August 10 to create awareness about the importance of non-fossil fuels as an alternative to conventional fossil fuels.
- The World Biofuel Day is being observed by the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas for the last three years.
- Persons from diverse fields like Members of Parliament
,Students ,farmers ,entrepreneurs ,Ambassadors ,Governmentofficers will participate in the event.
- Separate interactive sessions on ethanol, bio-diesel, bio-CNG and 2nd Generation biofuels are also scheduled after the inaugural session.
- Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from various plant materials collectively known as "biomass”.
- Ethanol is also available as E85 (or flex fuel), which can be used in flexible fuel vehicles, designed to operate on any blend of gasoline and ethanol up to 83%.
- Another blend, E15, is approved for use in
modelyear 2001 and newer vehicles.
- Bio-diesel is an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel.
- Bio-diesel can be produced from straight vegetable oil, animal oil/fats, tallow
andwaste cooking oil.
- The process used to convert these oils to Bio-diesel is called transesterification.
- The main benefit of bio-diesel is that it can be described as ‘carbon neutral’. This means that the fuel produces no net output of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2).
- Bio-CNG is the purified form of Biogas where all the unwanted gases are removed to produce pure methane gas.
- Bio-CNG is exactly similar to the commercially available natural gas in its composition and energy potential. As it is generated from biomass, it is considered a renewable source of energy and thus, attracts all the commercial benefits applicable to other renewable sources of energy.
Ethanol Blending Programme (EBP)
- It aims at blending ethanol with petrol, thereby bringing it under the category of biofuels and saving millions of dollars by cutting fuel imports.
EBPprogram ,availabilityof ethanol will increase due to the higher price for C heavy molasses basedethanol and enabling procurement of ethanol from B heavy molasses and sugarcane juice for the first time.
- The Government has also reduced GST on ethanol for blending in fuel from 18% to 5%.
- Sugarcane molasses is a
viscous, dark and sugar-rich by-product of sugar extraction from the sugarcane.
- B molasses (second molasses) has approximately the same DM content as A molasses but contains less sugar and does not spontaneously crystallize.
- C molasses (final molasses, blackstrap molasses, treacle) is the end by-product of the processing in the sugar factory. It still contains considerable amounts of sucrose (approximately 32 to 42%). C molasses does not crystallize and can be found in liquid or dried form as a commercial feed ingredient.
National Policy on Biofuels
- The objective of the Biofuel policy is to achieve 20% ethanol-blending and 5% biodiesel-blending by the year 2030.
- The policy also expands the scope of feedstock for ethanol production and has provided for incentives for
productionof advanced biofuels.
Difference between Basic and
- Second-generation biofuels, also known as advanced biofuels, are fuels that can be manufactured from various types of non-food biomass. Biomass in this context means plant materials and animal waste used especially as a source of fuel.
- First-generation biofuels are made from the sugars and vegetable oils found in food crops using standard processing technologies.
- Second-generation biofuels are made from different feedstocks and therefore may require different technology to extract useful energy from them.
- Second generation feedstocks include lignocellulosic biomass or woody crops, agricultural residues or waste, as well as dedicated non-food energy crops grown on marginal land unsuitable for crop production.
Initiatives Taken by the Government of India on Biofuels
- Simplifying the procurement procedures of Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs).
- Amending the provisions of
Industries(Development & Regulation) Act, 1951.
- Enabling lignocellulosic route for ethanol procurement.
- Administrative price mechanism for ethanol.
- Lignocellulosic biomass refers to plant biomass that is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.
- Biomass is increasingly recognized as a valuable
commodity,since it is an alternative to petroleum for the production of biofuels and chemicals.
- Even today, cellulose consumption is threefold higher than that of steel and is equal to that of cereals, but its current uses are mainly restricted to the materials sector (wood-based and paper).
- From an energy point of
viewlignocellulosic biomass can replace fossil fuels.
- India is the third largest consumer of energy in the world after China and the US.
- Currently, the country is dependent on imports for about 82.1
per centof its crude oil requirement and to the extent of about 44.4 per centin case of natural gas.
- Oil PSUs are also planning to set up
12 secondgeneration (2G) biorefineries to augment ethanol supply and address environmental issues arising out of burningof agricultural biomass.
- The biofuels programme is also in sync with other Government of India initiatives like Make in India and Swachh Bharat Mission.