India has the Opportunity to Export more Wheat

Why in News?

The Russia-Ukraine conflict may give India an opportunity to ship more wheat in the global markets.

What are the Key Points?

  • More than a quarter of the world's wheat export comes from Russia and Ukraine.
    • Russia is the world's largest exporter of wheat, accounting for more than 18% of international exports.
    • In 2019, Russia and Ukraine together exported more than a quarter (25.4 %) of the world's wheat.
  • The top five countries that exported the highest dollar-value worth of wheat include Russia > United States > Canada > France > Ukraine.
  • Egypt is the world's biggest importer of wheat.
  • Turkey is also a big spender on Russian and Ukrainian wheat with 74% of its imports coming from those two countries in 2019.
  • India is the second largest producer of wheat with a share of around 13.5% of world total production.
    • India produces around 107.59 MT of wheat annually while a major chunk of it goes towards domestic consumption.
    • India accounts for even less than 1% in world wheat export. However, its share has increased from 0.14% in 2016 to 0.54% in 2020.
  • Presently, India's central pool stands at 24.2 million tonnes, twice more than the buffer and strategic needs.

What are the Key Points related to Wheat?

  • About
    • This is the second most important cereal crop in India after rice.
    • It is the main food crop, in northand north-western part of the country.
    • Wheat is a rabi crop that requires a cool growing season and bright sunshine at the time of ripening.
    • Success of the Green Revolution contributed to the growth of Rabi crops, especially wheat.
    • Macro Management Mode of Agriculture, National Food Security Mission and Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana are few government initiatives to support wheat cultivation.
  • Temperature: Between 10-15°C (Sowing time) and 21-26°C (Ripening & Harvesting) with bright sunlight.
  • Rainfall: Around 75-100 cm.
  • Soil Type: Well-drained fertile loamy and clayey loamy (Ganga-Satluj plains and black soil region of the Deccan).
  • Top Wheat Producing States: Uttar Pradesh > Punjab > Haryana>Madhya Pradesh > Rajasthan> Bihar>Gujarat

Source: TH