Congressional Report on Terrorism: US

Why in News

Recently, the US Congressional report on terrorism stated that Pakistan is home to at least 12 groups designated as Foreign Terrorist Organisation (FTO).

Foreign Terrorist Organisation

  • FTO are foreign organizations that are designated by the Secretary of State US. This plays a critical role in fight against terrorism and is an effective means of curtailing support for terrorist activities and pressuring groups to get out of the terrorism business.

Key Points

  • Pakistan Safe Haven for Terror:
    • Pakistan has continued to serve as a safe haven for certain regionally focused terrorist groups, and has allowed groups targeting Afghanistan as well as groups targeting India to operate from its territory.
    • Pakistan’s neighbours, including Afghanistan and India, and the US have long accused Islamabad of providing safe haven and support to militants.
  • Categorization of Terrorist Groups:
    • The groups operating in Pakistan can be broadly categorised into five types:
      • Globally-oriented
      • Afghanistan oriented
      • India- and Kashmir-oriented
      • Domestically oriented
      • Sectarian (anti-Shia).
Prominent India-Centric Terror Organizations in Pakistan
Name Formation FTO Designation About Status in India as per the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967
Lashkar-e-Taiba (LET) Late 1980s 2001

It was responsible for major 2008 attacks in Mumbai, as well as numerous other high-profile attacks.

Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) 2000 2001

Along with LET, it was responsible for the 2001 attack on the Indian parliament, among other attacks. JEM also has openly declared war on the United States.

Harakat-ul Jihad Islami (HUJI) 1980 2010

Initially it was formed to fight the soviet army, however after 1989, it redirected its efforts toward India, although it did supply fighters to the Afghan Taliban.

HUJI today operates in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh and India, and seeks annexation of Kashmir into Pakistan.

Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HUM) 1985 1997

It operates mainly from Pak-Occupied Kashmir and from some Pakistani cities.

Hizb-ul Mujahideen 1989 2017 It is the militant wing of Pakistan’s largest Islamist political party and is one of the largest and oldest militant groups operating in Jammu and Kashmir. Banned
Al Qaeda 1988 1999 It has operated primarily from the former Federally Administered Tribal Areas and in the megacity of Karachi, as well as in Afghanistan. Banned
  • Steps Taken:
    • Modest steps were taken by Pakistan’s government to counter terrorism financing and to restrain some India-focused militant groups following an early 2019 terrorist attack in Jammu and Kashmir.
    • However, it has yet to take decisive actions against India- and Afghanistan-focused militants, and that progress on the most difficult aspects of its 2015 National Action Plan to counter terrorism remains unfulfilled specifically its pledge to dismantle all terrorist organisations without delay and discrimination.

Source: IE