## petaFLOP Supercomputers | 27 May 2023

### Why in News?

India is set to introduce 1**8 new petaFLOP supercomputers dedicated to weather forecasting, aiming to enhance the accuracy and resolution** of weather predictions.

- These state-of-the-art machines will significantly
**improve forecasting capabilities**at the block level,**predict cyclones with greater accuracy and lead time,**and provide detailed**ocean state forecasts.**

### What are FLOPs in computing?

**About:****FLOPs, or Floating-Point Operations per Second**, is a**metric**used to measure**computational performance and efficiency**in**high-performance computing (HPC) and artificial intelligence (AI).**- Floating-point operations involve mathematical calculations with real numbers that have fractional parts.
- Using floating-point encoding, extremely long numbers can be handled relatively easily.

**Significance**:- FLOPs are not the sole metric to evaluate a computer's performance. Factors like
**memory bandwidth, latency, and architectural features also contribute.**- However, FLOPs provide a baseline for comparing computational capabilities, particularly in
**tasks dominated by floating-point calculations.**

- However, FLOPs provide a baseline for comparing computational capabilities, particularly in

- FLOPs are not the sole metric to evaluate a computer's performance. Factors like
**Unit of Computing Speed:****Teraflops:**- It is a unit of computing speed equal to
**one million million (1 trillion) (10^12) FLOPS.**

- It is a unit of computing speed equal to
**Petaflops:**- It is a unit of computing speed equal to
**1000 TFLOPS (10^15).**

- It is a unit of computing speed equal to
**Exaflops:**- It is a unit of computing speed equal to
**one billion billion (10^18) FLOPS.**

- It is a unit of computing speed equal to

**India's Current Usage of petaFLOPs:**- The
**National Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF)**houses**'Mihir,' a 2.8 petaFLOP supercomputer,**while the**Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) houses 'Pratyush,' a 4.0**petaFLOP supercomputer. - These existing supercomputers, launched in 2018, will be decommissioned once the new petaFLOP supercomputers are introduced.
- As per the agreement, NCMRWF will receive eight PFLOPs of computing power, while the remaining ten PFLOPs will be allocated to IITM, catering to their specific weather forecasting requirements.
- India’s first supercomputer called
**PARAM 8000 was launched in 1991.**

- The

### Note:

- The world’s fastest computer in terms of PFLOPs is the
**Hewlett Packard Enterprise****Frontier, or OLCF-5**with the capability to touch a**peak performance of 1,685.65.** **Airawat PSAI stands as India's largest and fastest AI supercomputing system**, with a remarkable speed of 13,170 teraflops.