Kunming Declaration on Biodiversity | 14 Oct 2021

Why in News

Recently, the Kunming Declaration was adopted by over 100 countries at the ongoing 15th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity in china.

  • The adoption of the declaration will create momentum for a new global biodiversity pact.
  • In a previous agreement, Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, signed in Aichi, Japan, in 2010, governments agreed on 20 targets to try to slow biodiversity loss and protect habitats by 2020.

Key Points

  • About
    • It calls for urgent and integrated action to reflect biodiversity considerations in all sectors of the global economy but crucial issues - like funding conservation in poorer countries and committing to biodiversity-friendly supply chains have been left to discuss later.
      • It is not a binding international agreement.
    • It calls upon the parties to mainstream biodiversity protection in decision-making and recognise the importance of conservation in protecting human health.
      • The theme of the declaration is Ecological Civilization: Building a Shared Future for All Life on Earth.
    • By adopting this, the nations have committed themselves to support the development, adoption and implementation of an effective post-2020 implementation plan, a capacity building action plan for the Cartagena Protocol on biosafety.
      • The Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.
    • As per the declaration the signatory nations will ensure that the post-pandemic recovery policies, programmes and plans contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, promoting sustainable and inclusive development.
  • 30 by 30 Target
    • The declaration made a reference to the '30 by 30' target which is a key proposal being debated at the COP15, that would afford 30% of the Earth’s land and oceans protected status by 2030.
      • Apart from this, the goal to halve the use of chemicals in agriculture and stop creating plastic waste is also being debated.
  • Kunming Biodiversity Fund
    • China has also pledged to inject USD 233 million into a new fund to protect biodiversity in developing countries. The fund is being referred to by China as Kunming Biodiversity Fund.
    • It is the right step in this direction. However, some countries have reservations regarding this fund.
      • Some countries have called this fund as “a drop in the bucket” given that China is the world’s biggest polluter.
      • Further, some rich country donors say a new fund for conservation is unnecessary because the United NationsGlobal Environment Facility already helps developing nations finance green projects.
  • Global Initiatives to Save Biodiversity
    • Convention on Biological Diversity
      • It is a legally binding treaty to conserve biodiversity that has been in force since 1993.
        • India is a party to the convention.
    • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora:
      • It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together.
        • India is a member of the convention.
    • World Wide Fund for Nature
      • It is an international non-governmental organisation for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment..
    • Global Biodiversity Assessment
      • It is an independent, critical, peer reviewed scientific analysis of the current issues, theories and views regarding the main aspects of biodiversity.
    • Man and the Biosphere Program
      • It was launched in 1970 and has initiated programmes and activities focusing on the diversity and the resources provided by nature, humans' impacts on biodiversity, as well as how biodiversity affects human activities.

Climate Financing

  • About
    • Climate finance refers to local, national or transnational financing—drawn from public, private and alternative sources of financing—that seeks to support mitigation and adaptation actions that will address climate change.
  • Some Global Climate Funds
    • Green Climate Fund (GCF)
      • It was established to limit or reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in developing countries and to help vulnerable societies adapt to the unavoidable impacts of climate change.
    • Adaptation Fund (AF)
      • It was established under the Kyoto Protocol in 2001 and has committed USD 532 million to climate adaptation and resilience activities.
    • Global Environment Fund (GEF)
      • GEF has served as an operating entity of the financial mechanism since the Convention came into force in 1994.
      • It is a private equity fund focused on seeking long term financial returns by investments in clean energy under climate change.
    • Additional Funds: In addition to providing guidance to the GEF and the GCF, parties have established two special funds:
      • The Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) and the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF).
      • Both funds are managed by the GEF.

Source: DTE