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बेसिक इंग्लिश का दूसरा सत्र (कक्षा प्रारंभ : 22 अक्तूबर, शाम 3:30 से 5:30)
Climate Change: some Plain Facts
Dec 08, 2015

1. Climate Change: some Plain Facts

A. Global warming and Climate Change

B. Rise of Sea Level

C. Major cause of these: Rise in Emission:

D. Climate Related Disaster

E. Burnt of it fall on Poor

Climate change has a long history. Scientists have been warning about rising temperatures and carbon dioxide levels since the 1960s. However, it took a couple of decades before governments started moving. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was set up in 1988, and two years later, further international cooperation materialized at the Rio Earth Summit, when the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) was established to stabilize greenhouse gases.

On 30th November , leaders of more than 180 nations met in Paris to start discussions on a legally binding and universal agreement on climate. The thrust of the talks was on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to limit the rise in global temperature by the end of this century to 2 degrees celsius above pre-industrial levels.

The current set of commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020. Whatever countries have outlined so far in their intended nationally determined contributions (INDC) documents—essentially pledges to reduce emissions—don’t seem enough to curb the rise in temperatures. The key numbers on climate change:

A. Global warming and Climate Change:

Climate Change some Plain Facts

According to the World Meteorological Organisation, 2015 is likely to be the warmest year on record. January to October data shows the average surface temperature so far is around 0.73 degree Celsius above the 1961-1990 average of 14 degrees Celsius and approximately 1 degree Celsius above the pre-industrial 1880-1899 period. Research has shown that many other impacts of climate change just get more and more intense with rising global temperature. For example, extreme heat waves, flooding, rainfall events, but also drought and water scarcity, are all expected to become more frequent in many regions and countries, including India.

B. Rise of Sea Level:

  • The warming has set off melting of polar ice caps, resulting in a rise in sea levels that threatens to drown coastal areas and islands. 

  • Sea surface temperatures have also been rising, accelerating sea level rise.

  • Coastal flooding and submergence of entire island nations is the most immediate impact of sea level rise. 

  • Scientists estimate that with rising sea levels, small island countries such as the Maldives, will not survive.

  • It also threatens marine life, especially corals, as well as making shellfish (a source of essential protein for more than a billion people across the world) cultivation more difficult.

Rise of Sea Level

C. Major cause of these: Rise in Emission:

  • There is consensus among scientists about the dangers of climate change from anthropogenic (owing to human activity) emissions. 

  • Greenhouse gases have a heat-trapping effect on the earth’s atmosphere. Industrialization, driven by rising fossil fuel consumption, has seen carbon dioxide emissions soar.

  • Deforestation to clear land for cultivation and settlement has removed the world’s carbon sinks.

  • Modern lifestyles are energy intensive, and fossil fuel consumption is only set to rise as population grows. 

  • According to a UN climate panel report, to curb global warming at 2 degrees Celsius, the world can only emit a total of between 800 billion and 880 billion tonnes of carbon. Of this, about 530 billion tonnes had already been emitted by 2011.

Rise in Emission

D. Climate Related Disaster:

  • Rising temperatures and sea levels have set off a chain of extreme weather events and environmental changes that are making the world a more risky and dangerous place.

  • Data shows that since the 1980s, the incidence of extreme weather events has accelerated manifold, be it floods, droughts or storms. India too is feeling the heat of global warning.

  • According to Jacob Schewe, a researcher with the Potsdam Institute of Climate Change Research, this summer’s devastating heat wave and the weakening of average monsoon rainfall along with more frequent rainfall extremes can be seen as harbingers of India’s future climate.

Climate Related Disaster

E. Burnt of it fall on Poor:

  • It’s hard to adequately quantify the adverse effects of climate change, but the most acute effects include food stress. 

Burnt of it fall on Poor

  • The agriculture sector is particularly vulnerable to extreme weather events.

  • Modelling studies suggest that climate change could result in global crop yield losses as large as 5% by 2030 and 30% by 2080.

  • Health effects—higher incidence of malaria, diarrhoea and stunting—and the labour productivity effects of high temperatures are the next strongest drivers.

  • Recent World Bank report finds that in 52 countries where data was available, 85% of the population live in countries where poor people are more exposed to drought than the average. To give an example from closer home, poor people suffered economically the most during the Mumbai floods in 2005 and the Bangladesh floods of 1998.

Source :livemint


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