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बेसिक इंग्लिश का दूसरा सत्र (कक्षा प्रारंभ : 22 अक्तूबर, शाम 3:30 से 5:30)
Q. Reservation system in India: Can income, not caste, should be the criterion for reservations in India? Comment.
Jun 07, 2016 Related to : GS Paper-2

Ans :

Introduction-

Reservation in India is the process of facilitating people in education, scholarship, jobs etc that were faced historical injustice. Reservation is a form of quota-based affirmative action. Reservation is governed by constitutional laws, statutory laws, and local rules and regulations.

In news-

Since long time Jat community in Haryana and Patidar community in Gujarat are protesting with request to grant reservation for their communities. Recently Supreme Court quashed the Haryana government decision to include Jats in OBC category.

Issue- 

Supreme Court in its ruling stated that caste can’t be sole ground for reservation. In this background many observers opined that government should do away the reservation system based on solely caste system and Include other factors like education, economic states. They argue that a community cannot be on the backward-class list unless its economic and educational backwardness is strongly supported by data.

Arguments in favour-

  • Instead of sole caste factor, there are many other factors like education, economic status, social status etc that will identify real needy people. Many times economically sound people enjoyed the benefits caste based reservation, leaving aside real needy people.

  • Also poor people from upper caste do not have any social or economical advantages over rich people from backward caste. Even within backward caste people from urban area enjoyed the benefits and people from rural area not enjoyed the benefits of reservation.

  • In India we have seen that politicians used reservation as a tool to meet narrow political ends. Hence caste Based Reservation only perpetuates the notion of caste in society, rather than weakening it as a factor of social consideration, as envisaged by the constitution.

Arguments against-

  • Due to historical negligence caste based reservation are a political necessity in India. Affirmative Action has helped many backward communities in getting education and jobs, which were denied them since long.

  • Though Meritocracy is important aspect, but is meaningless without equality. Hence caste based reservation is needed to bring people from lower caste must be brought at par with upper caste both in terms of education and economic status.

  • To the great extent caste based reservation reduced the gap between upper and lower castes.

Conclusion-

Reservation is no doubt, one of the appropriate positive discrimination tool for the benefit of downtrodden and backward section. But in India the policy of reservation has never been subject to a widespread social or political audit. And the issue of reservation has remained a cause of disagreement between the various sections of the society. Hence before extending reservation to more groups, the entire policy needs to be properly examined, and its benefits over a span of nearly 60 years have to be gauged.


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