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बेसिक इंग्लिश का दूसरा सत्र (कक्षा प्रारंभ : 22 अक्तूबर, शाम 3:30 से 5:30)
Q. Issue of TB: In the backdrop of recent the Lancet study on TB, discuss the issue in detail.
May 12, 2017 Related to : GS Paper-2

Ans :

Introduction-

Recently the study conducted by The Lancet indicates that India’s Tuberculosis (TB) crisis is set to snowball by 2040 when one in 10 cases could be drug-resistant — both multidrug-resistant TB and extensively drug-resistant TB. The report published by The Lancet is cause to worry as nearly two months ago the Health Ministry of central government set the ambitious target of working towards elimination of tuberculosis by 2025.  

Study report-

  • The Lancet study projection has shows that there is increased number of drug-resistant cases will come from direct transmission from infected people to others rather than by strains acquiring resistance to TB drugs during treatment due to inadequate treatment or discontinuation of treatment midway.
  • The study also found that most incident Maternity Death Rates (MDR) cases are not caused by acquired drug resistance, which will become a decreasing cause of drug-resistant TB. The increased availability of drugs to fight drug-sensitive TB has led to the emergence of MDR-TB strains. 
  • With an increasing number of MDR-TB cases, there has been a shift in the way people get infected with drug-resistant TB — from strains acquiring drug resistance during treatment to direct transmission of MDR-TB strains from an infected person.

Analysis-

  • India being high MDR-TB burden country, has improved its treatments facility since many years, but study reveals that improved treatment outcomes in people might only reduce and not eliminate drug-resistant TB. Till 2015, only about 93,000 people with MDR-TB had been diagnosed and put on treatment.
  • According to study the study based on a mathematical model to forecast how TB is likely to progress in the four most-affected countries like Russia, the Philippines, South Africa, India, suggests that new MDR-TB cases a year in India will touch 12.4% by 2040, up from 7.9% in 2000.   
  • Currently, India’s TB control programme not just targeting early diagnosis and treatment of those with the disease, but also identified enhanced interventions to break the transmission cycle of the bacteria in the community.
  • Though contact screening of family members and preventive treatment of all children below the age of five who have not developed the disease are already a part of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme, but it has been very rarely implemented.
  • In the backdrop of recent The Lancet report, now India needs to adopt drug-susceptibility testing universal and mandatory. 
  • Developing more accurate, cheaper and effective diagnostic tests and improved treatment regimens that are less expensive and of shorter duration is the need of the hour.

Conclusion-

The recent Lancet study report on TB in India is cause to worry, that to at the time when India has set the ambitious target of working towards elimination of tuberculosis by 2025. Now India needs to develop some drug susceptibility tests and in long run we need to develop more enhanced and effective drugs to diagnose the tuberculosis.     


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